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Aim: To investigate the effect of five extraction solvents of varying polarity, namely aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane on phytochemicals yield and composition of Carica papaya seed. The acute toxicity test of each solvent fraction was also carried out and the average weight of rats in each group was measured before and after the experiment.
Methodology: The phytochemical screening, both qualitative and quantitative was carried out using standard methods and procedures. Acute toxicity study was conducted by determining the LD50 of each extract.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from April 2018 to August 2018.
Results: The results shows that the higher the solvent polarity, the better the yield of extract thus the extract yield was higher in aqueous followed by methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane in that order. Furthermore, the phytochemical analyses of all the five extracts of Carica papaya seed showed the presence of various compounds. The phytochemicals include flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycoside in varying amounts. Anthraquinones was not detected in all the five extracts. The LD50 of the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n- hexane extracts of Carica papaya seed in rat was greater than 5000 mg /kg body weight while the results of the weight changes shows that there is no statistically significant (p>0.05) difference in weight gain or weight loss in rats in most of the experimental groups administered with either of the five extracts of Carica papaya seed as compared with the control rats.
Conclusion: It was concluded that Carica papaya seed contain bioactive phytochemicals which yield is highest when extracted with water and that the plant material could have clinical potential with safe therapeutic application.
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