Asian Journal of Research in Botany <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Botany</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRIB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Botany. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Asian Journal of Research in Botany en-US Asian Journal of Research in Botany Contribution to the Study of Leaves: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae): Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity <p>In Africa, the use of plants for therapeutic purposes is an ancient practice. In recent years, much scientific work has been spent to the chemistry and toxicology of medicinal plants; there is a particular focus on natural antioxidants in relation to their various therapeutic properties. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to determine the antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroethanol extracts from the leaves of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss a plant known for its many pharmacological properties.</p> <p>The leaves of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss were oven dried at 60 degrees for 24 hours and reduced to a fine powder. And, the powder is first extracted with distilled water to obtain the aqueous extract, then with a mixture of distilled water and ethanol 50/50 (v / v) to obtain the hydroethanol extract. Antioxidant activity was done through the DPPH test, the FRAP method and the fixation of the radical nitro-oxide (NO).</p> <p>The results revealed that for the DPPH test, the hydro-ethanol extract is more active (IC<sub>50</sub>=9.9±0.14 mcg/ml) compared to the activity of the water extract (IC<sub>50</sub>= 11±0.28 mcg/ml). For the FRAP method, we note absorbance of 0.56 and 1.05 respectively for water and hydro-ethanol extract at a concentration (166.7 µg/ml). On the other hand, for the inhibition of radical nitro-oxide (NO), activity is low for the two extracts of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss respectively of 36.94±2.1% for the aqueous extract and 26.03±2.52% for the hydroethanol extract.</p> <p>This work highlights the antioxidant properties of Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extracts. Which give credit to certain data ethnopharmacological uses of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss, but, study benefits must be carried out to support this use especially on toxicology.</p> Kady Diatta William Diatta Alioune Dior Fall Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye Apéli Adjoa Jennifer Akpoto-Kougblenou Emmanuel Bassène ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-26 2019-08-26 1 8 Influence of Date of Sowing and Different Levels of Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.) <p>The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during October 2017 to February 2018 to find out the growth, yield and economic benefit of garden pea as influenced by date of sowing and different levels of phosphorus. The research comprised of two factors: Factor A: Sowing time (three levels) as S<sub>1</sub>=15 November, S<sub>2</sub>=25 November, S<sub>3</sub>=5 December and Factor B: Phosphorus fertilizer (four levels) as P<sub>0</sub>= Control (No Phosphorus), P<sub>1</sub>=50 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, P<sub>2</sub>=75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, P<sub>3</sub>=100 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha.&nbsp; The experiment was set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Sowing time and phosphorus influenced significantly on most of the parameters. Sowing time, S<sub>2 </sub>(25 November) performed best in number of pods per plant (12.10), number of seeds per pod (4.62) and green pod yield (8.48 ton) per hectare and minimum in S<sub>3</sub> (5 December) treatment. Application of phosphorus, P<sub>2 </sub>(75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) performed best in number of pods per plant (12.70), number of seeds per pod (4.90) and green pod yield (9.23 ton) per hectare and minimum in P<sub>0 </sub>(control) treatment. Among the treatment combination S<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2 </sub>treatment gave the highest green pod yield (10.50 t/ha) and the lowest (4.48 t/ha) was obtained from S<sub>3</sub>P<sub>0</sub> treatment. Combination of 25 November sowing with 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>was the best for growth, pod formation and seed formation of garden pea. From the economic point of view, the highest Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) was (2.35) noted from S<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2 </sub>and the lowest (1.02) from S<sub>3</sub>P<sub>0</sub>. It was evident that the S<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2</sub> gave the best performance for the growth, yield and economic benefit of garden pea. So, it was concluded that, the combination of 25 November sowing with 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> can be used for commercial garden pea production.</p> Md. Nahidul Islam Khaleda Khatun Tahmina Mostarin Md. Ehsanul Haq Md. Rafiqul Islam Bithi Rani Biswas Jinia Afsun Md. Ashraf Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 1 13 Leaf Chlorophylls and Carotenoids Status and Their Correlation with Storage Root Weight of Some Local and Exotic Sweetpotato Genotypes <p>The investigation was carried out to characterize the chlorophyll components and carotenoids of the leaves of some local and exotic genotypes of sweetpotato viz. Local-1, Local-2, Local-5, Local-8, Exotic-1, Exotic-2, Exotic-4 and BARI SP-4 and their effect on production of total dry matter and storage roots dry weight during November 2016 to March 2017 at farmer’s field of Dashpara village of Sylhet Sadar Upazila, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Fresh leaves of 5-6th position from the top of vine were collected from the research field into polybag with proper tagging and brought to the laboratory in the morning of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Collected leaves were washed, wiped out of excess water, cut into small pieces, mixed thoroughly, and 250 mg of leaf materials were taken in a mortar. Leaf materials were grinded finely by a pestle with 25 ml of cold 80% acetone for two minutes. Sample tubes were centrifuged for 10 minutes. The homogenate was filtered and made up to 25 ml with cold 80% acetone. The centrifuged samples were incubated in dark for half an hour. The optical density (OD) for each solution was measured at 663, 645 and 440.5 nm against 80% acetone as blank in one cm cell of spectrophotometer. Triplicate estimation was done for each sample. Chemical analyses were performed at Regional Laboratory of Soil Resource Development Institute, Sylhet. Statistical analyses was done using MSTATC software following analysis of variance technique and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Results showed that chlorophyll-a gradually increased up to 60 DAP in all genotypes, thereafter continued only in Exotic-4, Exotic-3 and Local-1 up to 90 DAP. The highest amount of chlorophyll-a (10.27±0.45 mg 100 gfw<sup>-1</sup>) was in Local-1 at 90 DAP. The highest amount of chlorophyll-b was in Exotic-3 (19.13±0.53 mg 100 gfw<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Local-1 (16.85±0.50 mg 100 gfw<sup>-1</sup>) at 30 DAP. Carotenoids content in leaves of all genotypes increased gradually up to 90 DAP and thereafter decreased except Exotic-4. The highest carotenoids was in Exotic-3 (10.78 mg 100 gfw<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Local-1 (10.13 mg 100 gfw<sup>-1</sup>) at 90 DAP. At 120 DAP, the highest storage roots weight was in Local-8 (232.40±5.97 g plant<sup>-1</sup>), followed by Local-1 (187.50±5.23 g plant<sup>-1</sup>). Chlorophylls and carotenoids had no significant effect on total dry matter and storage roots dry weights at 30 DAP. At 120 DAP, all chlorophyll components and carotenoids had positive correlation with total dry matter (TDM) and storage roots dry weights. Genotypes Local-1, Local-8 had the higher chlorophylls while Exotic-3, Local-1 and Local-8 had the higher carotenoids. Genotypes Local-1 and Local-8 showed the highest storage roots dry weight.</p> Md. Abu Shahadat Hossain A. F. M. Saiful Islam Mohammad Noor Hossain Miah Mohammad Mehedi Hasan Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 1 11 Ethnobotanic Survey of Aids Opportunistic Infections in the Fatick and Kaolack District (Senegal) <p>HIV / AIDS infection is characterized by the reduction of the body's defenses favoring the occurrence "opportunistic" infections, as furuncle, encephalitis and tuberculosis etc. Thus, to fight against this virus, antiretrovirals are used.</p> <p>The Kaolack and Fatick District have a prevalence rate (2.1%) above the national average of 0.7%. The aim of this study is to inventory the plants used against the treatment of opportunistic HIV / AIDS diseases because the populations often resort to phytotherapy. It is in this sense that a survey of twenty seven herbalists, Seventeen tradipraticians and eleven resource persons was conducted to identify the plants used in the management of opportunistic AIDS diseases. One hundred fifteen plants could be identified and divided into ninety seven genera and forty seven families. Some species have been mentioned very frequently and in many diseases. These are: <em>Pterocarpus erinaceus </em>(60%),<em> Acacia nilotica </em>(58.1%),<em> Ficus thonningii </em>(54.5%), <em>Detarium microcarpum </em>(52.7%),<em> Guiera senegalensis </em>(45.4%),<em> Lepisanthes senegalensis </em>(36,4%),<em> Adansonia digitata L. </em>(31%)<em> etc. </em>Leaves and barks constituted the greatest use in the form of decocted, macerated, for drinking, inhalating, or fumigation, etc. The result of this study was shown that medicinal plants are promising in managing HIV/AIDS related diseases. Further investigations are needed to explore the bioactive compounds of these herbal medicines, aimed at exploring the bioactive compounds that can be developed into anti-HIV drugs.</p> Kady Diatta William Diatta Alioune Dior Fall Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye El Hadji Ousmane Faye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 1 15 Growth and Yield of Chilli as Influenced by Plant Growth Regulators and Its Method of Application <p>The experiment was conducted on the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during Rabi season to determine the growth, yield and economic benefit of chilli as influenced by plant growth regulators. The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Plant growth regulators (three levels) as G0: Control, G1: NAA (40 ppm), G2: Cytokinin (10 ppm) and Factor B: Application method (three levels) as M1: Seed soaking with plant growth regulators for 6 hours, M2: Foliar spray of plant growth regulators at vegetative stage, M3: Foliar spray of plant growth regulators at flower bud initiation stage. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. In the case of plant growth regulators, the highest yield (33.56 t/ha) was found from G1 treatment, whereas the lowest (13.85 t/ha) from G0 treatment. For the application method, maximum yield (27.12 t/ha) was recorded from M3 treatment, while the minimum yield (19.92 t/ha) from M1 treatment. Due to combined effect, the highest yield (38.10 t/ha) with net income (1075498) and BCR (3.39) was observed from G1M3 treatment combination, while the lowest yield (11.22 t/ha) with net income (147131) and BCR (1.49) from G0M1 treatment combination. So, the economic analysis revealed that the G1M3 treatment combination appeared to be the best for achieving the higher growth, yield and economic benefit of chilli.</p> Iffat Sharmin Tahmina Mostarin Khaleda Khatun Md. Ehsanul Haq Ismita Akter Soniya Sanjida Akhter Shirajum Monira Avijit Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-23 2019-10-23 1 10 Ethno Apicultural Survey of Melliferous Plants Species in the Tambacounda District, Senegal <p>An ethno-apicultural survey was carried out for the plant species pollinated by honey bees in the Tambacounda District (East Senegal). This survey was conducted among 85 actors with a well-established questionnaire concerning beekeepers in this District. The listed melliferous flora was made of forty five species either. It’s divided in forty one genera and seventeen families though the most represented are in decreasing order Fabaceae with 12 species (26.66%) followed by Combretaceae and Malvaceae with&nbsp; six species (13.33% each), Poaceae with three species (6.66% each), then Anacardiaceae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae and Rubiaceae with&nbsp; two species (4.44% each) and then Apocynaceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Sapindaceae, Balanitaceae, Myrtaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae with 1 species (2.22% each). The most cited species such as melliferous plants are&nbsp;: <em>Pterocarpus erinaceus, Anacardium occidentale, Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica and&nbsp; Musa sapientum. </em>The trees are more large with 40% followed by shrubs with 33.33%, herbs which represent 24.44% and then Lianas 2.22%. Melliferous plants include 42.22% nectariferous and nectariferous polliniferous plants followed with 13.33% polliniferous and finally meliferous species with 2.22%. This&nbsp; study enabled&nbsp; us to identify&nbsp; six (06) species with&nbsp; high melliferous value. To valorize these plants and thus preserve them against abusive cuts, it is important to carry out a policy by bringing together the actors of the beekeeping industry for a better knowledge of these meliferous plants.</p> Kady Diatta William Diatta Alioune Dior Fall Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye Abdou Sarr Ndeye Bineta Badiane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 1 10 Poulk Plant (Stachys schtschegleevii) and Its Antibacterial Specifications <p>Poulk plant (<em>Stachys schtschegleevii</em> Sosn. ex Grossh.) is one of the medicinal plants with a long history in traditional medicine and is used to remedy many diseases. Polk plant possesses some properties, including the internal anti-infectious, antibacterial, Anti-asthma, anti-sinusitis, anti-inflammatory and it is used to remedy the respiratory inflammatory diseases and has been identified asa natural penicillin. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial effects of ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-hexane of the Poulk plant against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureu</em>s, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Salmonella enterica</em>. In this study, extracting was done by Soxhlet extractor with ethanolic, 2-Propanol and n-hexane solvents and after evaporation of the solvent and methylation by the rotary evaporator, the obtained substance was injected into the GC-MASS and the substance was detected, as well as the Inhibition zone, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) studies were carried out. The ranges of MIC and MBC of ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-hexane for MIC were 0.78-12.5%, 0.78 -6.25% and 12.5-50%, respectively. MBC for ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-Hexane were 0.78-12.5%, 0.78 -6.25% and 12.5-100%, respectively.</p> Farnaz Maleki Mir Mahmoud Seyyed Valilou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 1 13 Effect of Vermicompost and Plant Vitalizer on Growth and Yield of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. varcapitata) <p>The experiment was conducted during October 2017 to February 2018 in the Horticultural farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207. The experiment consisted of two factors: Factor A: Vermicompost (3 levels) as- Vr<sub>0</sub>: No vermicompost (control condition); Vr<sub>1</sub>: 4 ton vermicompost/ha, Vr<sub>2</sub>: 8 ton vermicompost/ha; and Factor B: Plant vitalizer (4 levels) as- Vi<sub>0</sub>: No vitalizer (control condition), Vi<sub>1</sub>: 2 ml vitalizer/L water,Vi<sub>2</sub>: 4 ml vitalizer/L water and Vi<sub>3</sub>: 6 ml vitalizer/L water. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different levels of vermicompost and plant vitalizer influenced significantly on most of the recorded parameters. In case of different levels of vermicompost, the highest marketable yield (52.30 t/ha) was observed from Vr<sub>2</sub> treatment, while the lowest (38.47 t/ha) from Vr<sub>0</sub> treatment. For different levels of plant vitalizer, the highest marketable yield (51.62 t/ha) was found from Vi<sub>3</sub>, whereas the lowest (39.62 t/ha) from Vi<sub>0</sub> treatment. The highest marketable yield (33.83 t/ha) was observed from Vr<sub>2</sub>Vi<sub>3</sub>, while the lowest (58.77 t/ha) from Vr<sub>0</sub>Vi<sub>0</sub> treatment combination. The highest benefit cost ratio (2.64) was found from Vr<sub>2</sub>Vi<sub>3</sub> and the lowest (1.67) was obtained from Vr<sub>0</sub>Vi<sub>0</sub>. So, combination of 8 ton vermicompost/ha and foliar application of 6 ml vitalizer/<em>l</em> water canbe used for red cabbage cultivation.</p> Manna Salwa Abul Hasnat M Solaiman Md. Ehsanul Haq Md. Delwar Hossain Aisha Siddika Tanzina Baby Easheta Akther Oisharja Halder ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 1 15