Biochemical Screening and Evaluation of Eucalptus camaldulensis Dehnh Leaf N-Hexane Extract on Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Olusola Michael Obembe *

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Plant Resources Management Programme, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Olumuyiwa Temitope Omotoso

Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado Ekti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of the leaf of E. camaldulensis were carried out in the laboratory, using standard methods, while the extraction wascarried outwith n-hexane using Soxhlet extractor, and concentrated with vacuum evaporator. The extract was tested on Callosobruchus maculatus to evaluate the effects on mortality, oviposition and adult emergence. The extract of E. camaldulensis leaves was effective in controlling C. maculatus as it caused a significantly high mortality of the weevils. Weevil mortality increased with increased in number of days in which they were exposed to the treatments and extract dosage level. Weevil 100% was achieved by 72 h when treated with 3% and 4% dosage level of the exract. The extracts significantly (P < 0.05) caused reduction in oviposition and adult emergence by the weevils. Oviposition and adult emergence decreased with increased in the dosage level of the extract. Oviposition was totally suppressed when insects were exposed to 4% extract dosage level, while there was no adult emergence on exposure to 3 and 4% extract dosage levels. The results obtained from the phytochemical analysis of E. camaldulensis indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and phenol indicating the quantitative phytochemical composition of phenol to be highest (76.955 mg/100g), followed by alkaloids (33.025mg/100g), flavonoids (11.74 mg/100g), while saponins has the least value of 9.88mg/100g. The GC-MS analysis revealed arrays of bioactive substances that are responsible for the insecticidal and medicinal properties of E. camaldulensis. The leaf of E. camaldulensis is cheap, biodegradable, ecological friendly and very effective bioinsecticides and therapeutic medicine. Hence, can be used as alternative to the poisonous conventional insecticides and drugs. 

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Callosobruchus maculatus, oviposition, adult emergence, bioinsecticides

How to Cite

Obembe , O. M., & Omotoso , O. T. (2024). Biochemical Screening and Evaluation of Eucalptus camaldulensis Dehnh Leaf N-Hexane Extract on Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Asian Journal of Research in Botany, 7(1), 1–12. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Nkhoma H, Shimelis H, Laing MD, Shayanowako A, Mathew I. Assessing the genetic diversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm collections using phenotypic traits and SNP markers, BMC genetics. 2020;21:1-6.

Kpoveisi AD, Agbahoungba S, Agoyi EE, Assogbadjo DC. Resistance of cowpea to Cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.): Knowledge level on the genetic advance. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2019;11:185-195.

Hiama PD, Ewusi-Mensah N, Logah V. Nutrient uptake and biological nitrogen fixation in cowpea under biocharphosphorus interaction. Journal of Animal and Plant Siences. 2019;29:1654-1663.

Adebayo RA, Anjorin OO. Assessment of entomocidal effect of solar radiation for the management of cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research. 2018;18:21-26.

Mishra SK, Panda MLR, Panigrahi J. Bruchid pest management in pulses: past practices, present status and use of modern breeding tools for development of resistant varieties. Annal of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;172(1):196-205.

Boukar O, Abberton MO, Oyatomi A, Togola A, Tripathi L, Fatokun C. Introgression breeding in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Frontier in Plant Science. 2020;11:567425.

Mobolade AJ, Bunindro N, Sahoo D, Rajashekar Y. Traditional methods of food grains preservation and storage in Nigeria and India. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64:196-205.

Omoigui LO, Kamara AY, Kamai N, EKeleme F, Aliyu KT. Guide to cowpea production in Northern Nigeria. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2020;48.

Ashamo M. Evaluation of contact toxicity and fumigant effect of some plant powder against Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.). Proceeding of the AKure Humboldt Kelllong (3rd SAAT Annual Conference: Medicinal Plant in Agriculture, The Nigeria Experience. 2007;64-67.

Profit M. Bruchid Research at Royal Holloway, University of London; 1997.

Ntoukam GL, Murdock LL, Shade RE. Managing insect pest of cowpea in storage, Midcourse 2000 Research meeting, Senegal. 2000;3-4.

Carlos G. Cowpea post harvest operation, Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations, Rome, Italy; 2000.

Akinkurolere RO, Adedire CO, Odeyemi OO. Laboratory evaluation of the toxic properties forest anchomanes, Anhomanes difformis against pulse beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Insect Science. 2006;13:25-29.

Oni MO, Ileke KD. Fumigant toxicity of four botanical plant oils in survivl, egg laying and progeny development of the dried yam beetle, Dinoderus porcellus (Coleoptera Bostrichidae). Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research. 2008;4(2):31-36.

Adedire CO, Obembe OM, Akinkurolere RO, Oduleye O. Response of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchidae) to extracts of cashew kernels. Journal of Plant Disease and Protection. 2011;118(2):75-79.

Varma J, Dubey NK. Prospectives of botanical and microbial products as pesticides of tomorrow, Current Science Association. 1999;76(2):172-179.

Huang Y, Ho S, Lee H, Yap Y. Insecticidal properties of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol and their effects on nutrition of Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium casteneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 2002;38:403–412.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall, Limited, London. 1973;49-188.

Odeyemi OO, Daramola AM. Storage practices in the tropics: Food storage and pest problems. First Edition, Dave Collins publication, Nigeria. 2000;1:235.

Boeke SJ, Van Loon JJA, Van Huis A, Kossou DK, Dickle M. The use of plant materials to protect stored leguminous seed from beetles: A review. Wageningen University papers 2001- 2003. Backhuys publishers. The Netherlands. 2001; 108.

Onolemhemhem OP, Oigiangbe ON. The biology of Callosbruchus maculatus (F.) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan ( L.) Millsp.) treated with vegetable oil of Thioral samaras. J Agric Res. 1991;8:57–63.

Ogunleye RF, Omotoso OT. Comparative effectiveness of the latex and extracts of six botanicals in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Phys Biol Sci. 2011;4(1):24–26.

Annie Bright A, Babu A, Ignacimuthu S, Dom S. Efficacy of Andrographis peniculata Nzes on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post-harves storage of cowpea. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:715–718.

Fernando AC, Silva KFSD, Santos KKD, Junior KALR, Ana AEGS. Activities of some Brazilian plant against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Fitoterapiai. 2005;76:234-239.

Yang Z, Zhao B, Zhu L, Fang J, Xia L. Inhibitory effects of alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroids on feeding development and reproduction of Clostera anastomosis. Front China. Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 2006;1(2):190–195.

Molyneux RJ, Nash RJ, Asano N. Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives. S.W. Pelletier (ed.), Pergamon: Oxford. 1996;11.

Burak M, Imen Y. Flavonoids and their antioxidant properties. TurkiyeKlin Tip Bil Derg. 1999;19:296–304.

Lee Y, Yuk D, Lee J. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced elevation of β-amyloid generation and memory deficiency. Brain Res. 2009;1250:164–174.

Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HPS, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(6):587–605. Available:

Waheed A, Barker J, Barton SJ, Owen CP, Ahmed S, Carew MA. A novel steroidal saponin glycoside from Fagoniaindica induces cell-selective apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;47(2):464–473. Available:

Himejima M. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree, Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion. J Chem Ecol. 1992;18(10):1809–1818.

Arts ICW, Hollman PCH. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Chemical Nutrition. 2005;81:317-25.

Ignat I, Volf I, Popa VI. A critical review of methods for characterization of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry. 2011;126 (4):1821-1835.

Sharma K, Kumar V, Kaur J, Tanwar B, Goyal A, Sharma R, Gat Y, Kumar A. Health effectss, sources, utilization and safety of tannins: A critical review. Toxin Rev. 2019;1-13.

Varma J, Dubey NK. Efficacy of essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis against some storage pests causing biodeterioration of food commodities.International. Journal of Food Microbiology. 2001; 68:207–210.