Main Article Content
Aims: Relationship between soil and woody species were assessed in the forest reserve in view of highlighting plant diversity status, population density and nutrient-relations in the forest.
Study Design: Systematic sampling method was used in sampling soil and vegetation parameters.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Oban Division of Cross River National Park, Nigeria, between November 2015 and July 2016.
Methodology: Systematic sampling method was used in studying the vegetation and soil. A total of thirty plots were sampled in each season. Total area of vegetation sampled was 1500 m2. Soil samples were analyzed following the standard procedures outlined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist.
Results: The result revealed a total of 24 species from 16 families and 23 plant species from 21 families in the wet and dry seasons respectively. Coula edulis was the most frequent plant species (100%) while Baphia nitida, recorded low frequency (20%) values. Barteria nigitiana (120±5.26) and Diospyros mespiliformis (120±6.20) dominated in density. Berlinia confusa was the tallest species (47.33±0.67 m) while Anthocleista vogelli was the smallest plant species (4.73±0.96 m). Brachystegia nigerica and Berlinia confusa had the widest crown coverage of 15.27±4.61 m2/ha and 15.27±4.73 m2/ha, respectively. Brachystegia nigerica had the largest basal area (0.42±0.07 m2/ha). Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were high in both wet (2.684 and 0.9029) and dry (2.968 and 0.9373) seasons respectively. Correlation analysis indicated significant relationship between woody species and soil edaphic factors. Stepwise multiple regression technique showed that soil variables predicted for the variations observed in vegetation parameters in both seasons.
Conclusion: The pedological indices and nutrient status of soil play critical roles in plant species distribution and vegetation morphology in Oban Forest Reserve.
Adekunle VAJ, Akindele SO, Fuwape JA. Structure and yield models of tropical lowland rainforest ecosystem of southwest Nigeria. J Food Agri Environ. 2004;2(2):395-399.
Adepetu JA, Obi OA, Amusan AA. Soil science laboratory manual 2nd ed. Department of soil science University of Ife, Ileife. Nigeria. 1984;205.
Agren GI, Bosatta E. Quality: A bridge between theory and experiment in soil organic matter studies. Oikos. 1996;76(3): 522-528.
Agoumé V, Birang AM. Impact of land-use systems on some physical and chemical soil properties of an oxisol in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Tropicultura. 2009;27(1):15-20.
Allen VB, Pilbeam DJ. Handbook of plant nutrition. New York: Taylor and Francis/ CRC Press. 2007;304.
Association of official analytical chemist (AOAC). Official methods of analysis of the Association of official analytical chemist, 17th Edn. Association of Official analytical chemist, Arlington, Virginia. 2003;96-105.
Bisong FE, Jnr. Mfon P, Effect of logging on stand damage in rainforest of south-eastern Nigeria. West Afr J App Ecol. 2006;10:119-129.
Black CA. Soil-plant relationships. Second edition. New York: Wiley. 2006;792.
Brady NC, and Weil RR, The nature and property of soils. 13th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Upper saddle River. 1999; 960.
Burrows CJ. Processes of vegetation change. London: Unwin Hyman. 1990;1.
Cochran NW. Sampling technique. 2nd ed., New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Limited. 1963; 413
Conyers MK, Davey BG. Observations on some routine methods for soil-pH determination. Soil Sci. 1988;145:29–36.
Clarke KR, Warwick RM. Changes in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edition PRIMER-E, Ltd., Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth; 2001.
Accessed 10 October 2016
Eni DD, Iwara AI, Offiong RA. Principal component analysis of soil. Vegetation interrelationships in south-southern secondary forest of Nigeria; 2012.
FEssumang DK. Analysis and human health risk assessment of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in manta birostris (manta ray) caught along the Ghanaian coastline. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 2009; 15:985–998.
Follett RH, Westfall DG, Identifying and correcting zinc and iron deficiency in field crops. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Service in Action. 1992;545.
Accessed 01 may 2017
Gebreselasse GV. Plant communities species diversity seedling bank and re-sprouting in Nandi Forest, Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Universitat Koblenz-Landau; 2011.
Harold JL, Robert FC. Forest Soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1961;243.
Holland MD, Allen RKG, Barton D, Murphy ST. Cross River national park (Oban Division); Land evaluation and agricultural recommendations. In: World Wide Fund for Nature, Godalming, United Kingdom. 1989; 140.
Isichei AO. Nitrogen in savanna grass and litter. In: MAB Nigerian savanna. Kainji lake research institute, new bussa. (Eds. Sanford WW, Yesufu HM, Ayeni JS). 1982; 208-224.
Jimoh SO, Adesoye PO, Adeyemi AA, Ikyaagba ET, Forest Structure Analysis in the oban division of Cross River national park, Nigeria. J Agr Sci Tech B. 2012;2: 510-518.
Jones MJ, Wild A. Soils of the West African Savanna. Technical Communication No. 55, Commonwealth Bureau of Soils. Harpenden. 1975;246.
Juo ASR. Selected method for soil and plant analysis: International institute of tropical agriculture, Ibadan. 1979;(1):70.
Knight DH. A phytosociological analysis of species rich tropical forest on Borro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecol Monogr. 1975;45:259-284.
Kramprath EJ. Conservation of soils and Tissue Testing for accessing the phosphorus status of soils. In: The role of phosphorus in agriculture. Khagwnch (ed). American Society of Agronomy. 1967;433-469.
Kusman PC. Kozolowski TT. Physiology of trees. New York: Mcgraw Hill, book Co. 1990;642
Mbong EO, Vegetation structure, species composition and soil relations in lower qua Iboe Wetland ecosystem. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 2013;83-91.
Ogbemudia FO, Anwana ED, Mbong EO, Joshua EE. Plant diversity status and soil physicochemistry in a Flood Plain. Int J Res. 2014;1:1977-1985.
Ogunjobi JA, Meduna AJ, Oni SO, Inah EI, Enya DA. Protection staff’s job perception in Cross River national park, Southern Nigeria, Middle-East. J Sci Res. 2010;5(1):22-27.
Onyekwelu JC, Mosandl R, Stimm B. Tree species diversity and soil status of two national forest ecosystem in loeland humid tropical rainforest in Nigeria. Conference on International Agriculture Research For Development (Tropentag 2007). 2007;4.
Raunkaier C. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Clarendon Press, Oxford . 1934;2-104.
Schmitt CB, Burgess ND, Coad L, Belokurov A, Besançon C, Boisrobert L, et al. Global analysis of the protection status of the world’s forests. Biol Conserv. 2009; 142(10):2122-2130.
Scokar PO, Meeus-Verdinne K, De Borger R. Mobility of heavy metals in polluted soils near zinc smelters. Water Air and Soil Pollut. 1983;20:451-63.
Shukla RS, Chandel PS. Plant Ecology including Ethnobotany and Soil Science. New Delhi: S. Chand. 2008;544.
Sidiyasa K. Tree diversity in the rain forest of Kalimantan; 2001.
Accessed 13 July 2016.
Silva JA, Uchida R. Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils, approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture eds. College of tropical agriculture and human resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2000;31-53.
Smith RL. Ecology and field biology. 5th edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publisher. 1996;78-94.
Sollins P, Factors influencing species composition in tropical lowland rain forest: Does soil matter? Ecology. 1998; 79:23–30.
Stevenson FJ. Organic matter micro-nutrient reaction in the soil. In: Mortuedt JJ, Cox FR, Shuamm LM, Welch RM. (eds) micronutrients in agriculture. Madison: SSSA. 1991;145-186.
Sundarapandian SM, Swamy PS. Forest ecosystem structure and composition along an altitudinal gradient in the Western Ghats, South India. J Trop For Sci. 2000; 12:104-123.
Turner IM. The ecology of trees in the tropical rainforest, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 2001;298.
Ubom RM, Ogbemudia FO, Benson KO. Soil vegetation relationship in fresh water swamp forest. J Biol Sc. 2012; 1(2):43-51.
Ubom RM, Ogbemudia FO, Ita RE. Floristic and structure of fallow vegetation. J Biol Sci. 2012;1(2):61-69.
Udo EJ, Ogunwale JA. Laboratory manual for the analysis of soils, plants and water samples. Department of Agronomy University of Ibadan. 1978;45.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Nigeria biodiversity and tropical forestry assessment; 2006.
Accessed 12 May 2016
Van de Valk AG, Davis CB. The role of seed baks in the vegetation dynamics of prairie glacial marshes. Ecology. 1978; 59(2):322-335.
Verma SK, Verma M. A textbook of plant physiology, biochemistry and biotechnology. 6th ed., New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd. 2007;93-95.
Walkley A, Black IA. An examination of the detjare method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration. Soil Sci. 1934;37:29-36.