Growth and Water Content Responses of the Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Genotypes to Drought and Salinity; and their Effects on Yield
Asian Journal of Research in Botany,
Aims: To screen ten selected cassava genotypes for tolerance to drought and salinity using growth and yield attributes; and leaf relative water contents (LRWC) as screening tools.
Study design: The design was factorial consisting of ten cassava genotypes, three treatments (and control) with six replications laid out in a randomized complete block design(RCBD).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, between January and July, 2019.
Methodology: There were a total of 240 experimental units, 60 units in each group. It was a semi-field experiment. All plants were watered for 6 weeks before exposing them to the physiological stresses of drought (D), salinity (S) and their interaction (D×S). The designated plants were subjected to S by applying 100mM of NaCl solution, D by with-holding water for 2 weeks interval, (D×S) by combining the two stresses and the first block (the first 60 units) served as control.
Results: With respect to plant height, the least and most significantly affected by drought were IBA120008 (61.94 cm) and I098510 (32.77 cm); by salinity were IBA120008 (57.09 cm) and I920326 (35.24 cm) and by D×S were IBA120008 (67.45 cm) and I920326 (34.57cm), respectively. With respect to RWC at the final stage of growth, the most tolerant were TMEB419 (100.00%) under D, I980581 (100.00%) under S and I010040 (100.00%) under D×S while the most susceptible were TMEB693 (89.75%), IBA120008 (63.64%) and I070593 (55.56%) under D, S and D×S respectively. In all the three stresses, genotype I980581 was the least significantly affected with the tuber yield of 174.54g.
Conclusion: High shoot growth does not guarantee high yield. It can also be concluded that drought had more detrimental effects on cassava productivity than salinity and their combination.
- Cassava genotypes
- Tolerance; Growth
- Relative water content
- drought and salinity
How to Cite
Oyetunji OJ, Imade FN. Effect of different levels of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on dry matter and ionic contents of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). African J. of Agric. Res. 2015;10(11): 1239-1243.
Heuze V, Tran G, Archimede H, Regnier C, Bastianelli D, Lebas F. Cassava roots. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO; 2016.
Hillocks RJ. Cassava in Africa. Chapter 3. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM and Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization, CABI, Wallingford, UK. 2002; 41-54.
Ekwe KC, Nwakor FN, Ironkwe AG, Amangbo LEF. Building farmers’ knowledge in cassava value addition for improved rural livelihoods in Abia state: issues for policy consideration. J. of Agric. and Social Res. 2008;8(2):104-113.
Udoka SJ, Nkeme KK, and SundayAE. Extent Of Value Addition and Estimate of Value Added in Cassava Enterprise in Ikono Local Government area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Int’l J. of Agric. and Rural Dev. 2018;21(1):3313-3318.
Carretero CL, Cantos M, García JL, Troncoso A. In vitro–ex vitro salt (NaCl) tolerance of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.-Plant. 2007;43:364-369.
Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D and Basra SMA. Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sust. Devt. 2009;29:185-212.
IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change. The Physical Science Basis: Summary for Policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat; 2007.
Laraus J. The problems of sustainable water use in the mediterranean and research requirements for agriculture. Ann. Appl. Biol. 2004;144:259–272.
Oyetunji OJ and Afolayan ET. Chlorophyll, Relative Water Content and Yield Assessment of Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata- Poir) Vine Cuttings for Mini Tuber Production under Varying Environmental Conditions. Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol. 2014;24(1):10-17.
Olsen K and Schaal BA. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.1999;96(10): 5586-5591.
Straker CJ, Hilditch AJ, Rey ME. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in South Africa. South African J. of Bot. 2010; 76:102–111.
Alves AAC. Cassava botany. physiology. Chapter 5. In: Hillocks RJ, JM Thresh and AC Bellotti, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization, CABI, Wallingford, United Kingdom; 2002.
Elias M, Lenoir H, McKey D. Propagule quantity and quality in traditional Makushi farming of cassava (Manihot esculenta): A case study for understanding domestication and evolution of vegetatively propagated crops. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2007;54:99–115.
McKey D, Elias M, PujolB and Duputie A. The evolutionary ecology of clonally propagated domesticated plants. New Phytologist. 2010;186:318–332.
Gleadow R,Pegg A and Blomstedt CK. Resilience of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to salinity: implications for food security in low-lying regions. J. Exp. Bot. 2016;5403-5413.
Ecocrop. Ecocrop database, FAO; 2011.
Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA, Oshodi AA. Nutrient and antinutrient content of Aspergillus niger fermented cassava products flour and garri. J. Food Compo. Anal. 2002;15:617-622.
Howeler RH. Cassava mineral nutrition and fertilization. Chapter 7. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM and Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization, CABI, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 2002;115-147.
Lawlor DW and Cornic G. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2002;25: 275–294.
Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Khan MMA and AlWhaibi MH. Cumulative effect of nitrogen and sulphur on Brassica juncea L. genotypes under NaCl stress. Protoplasma. 2012;249:139-153.
Lugojan C and Ciulca S. Evaluation of relative water content in winter wheat. J. Hortic. Fores. Biotechnol. 2011;15:173–177.
Zygielbaum AI, Gitelson AA, Arkebauer TJ and Rundquist DC. Non-destructive detection of water stress and estimation of relative water content in maize. Geophysical Res. Letters. 2009;36:1-4.
Molnar I, Gaspar L, Sarvari E, Dulai S, Hoffmann B, Molnar-Lang Met al. Physiological and morphological responses to water stress in Aegilopsbiuncialis and Triticumaestivum genotypes with differing tolerance to drought. Func. Plant Biol. 2004;31:1149–1159.
Oyetunji OJ and Imade F.N. Effect of salt stress on growth, proline, glycinebetaine and photosynthetic pigment concentrations on cowpea plant. Nat Sci. 2014; 12(12):156-161.
Chaves MM, Flexas J and Pinheiro C. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany. 2009;103: 551–560.
O’Brien GM, Taylor AJ, Poulter NH. Improved enzymatic assay for cyanogens in fresh and processed cassava. J. Sci. Food Agric.1991;56:277–289.
Munns R, Tester M. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2008;59:651-681.
Lauchli A and Epstein E. Plant responses to saline and sodic conditions. In: Tanji KK, editor.Agricultural salinity assessment and management. ASCE manuals and reports on engineering practice. ASCE New York. 1990;71:113–137.
Adelusi AA, Odufeko GT, Makinde AM. Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. on the Growth and Reproductive Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merill. Research J. of Bot. 2006;1(2):85-94.
Saleh B. Salt stress alters physiological indicators in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutumL.). Soil and Environment. 2012; 31(2):113-118.
Silveira JA, Costa RC, Viegas RA, Oliveira JT and Figueiredo MV. N-compound accumulation and carbohydrate shortage on N2 fixation in drought-stressed and re-watered cowpea plants. Spanish Journal of Agric. Res. 2003;1(3):65-75.
Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Murali PV, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R. Antioxidant potential and indole alkaloid profile variations with water deficits along different parts of two varieties of Catharanthus roseus. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces. 2008;62:312–318.
Oyetunji OJ, Ekanayake IJ, Osonubi O. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis for accessing water deficit and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Advances in Biological Research. 2007;1(3 & 4):108-117.
Zhang M, Duan L, Zhai Z, Li J, Tian X, Wang B et al. Effects of plant growth regulators on water deficit-induced yield loss in soybean. Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia; 2004.
Wasonga DO, Kleemola J, Alakukku L, Mäkelä PSA. Growth Response of Cassava to Deficit Irrigation and Potassium Fertigation during the Early Growth Phase. Agronomy. 2020;10(321):1-14.
Chen Z, Cuin TA, Zhou M, Twomey A, Naidu BP, Shabala S. Compatible solute accumulation and stress-mitigating effects in barley genotypes contrasting in their salt tolerance. J Exp Bot. 2007;58: 4245–4255.
Sanchez HB, Lemeur R, Damme PV and Jacobsen S-E. Ecophysiological Analysis Of Drought And Salinity Stress Of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.). Food Reviews Intl. 2003;19:1-2:111-119.
Aldesuquy HS. Growth and pigment content of wheat as influenced by the combined effects of salinity and growth regulators. Biologia Plantarum.1992;34(3-4): 275-283.
Cheng YE, Dong MY, Fan XW, Nong LL, Li YZ. A study on cassava tolerance to and growth responses under salt stress. Envtl. and Exptl. Botany. 2018;(155):429-440.
Cramer GR, Ergul A, Grimplet J, Tillett RL, Tattersall EAR, Bohlman MC et al.Water and salinity stress in grapevines: early and late changes in transcript and metabolite profiles. Funct. Integr. Genomics. 2007; 7:111–134.
Omami EN, Hammes PS. Interactive effects of salinity and water stress on growth, leaf water relations and gas exchange in amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). New Zealand J. of Crop and Horticultural Sci. 2006;34(1):33-44.
Vandegeer R, Rebecca EM, Bain M, Roslyn MG, Timothy RC. Drought adversely affects tuber development and nutritional quality of the staple crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Functl. Plant Biol. 2013;40(2):195-200.
Stiller I, Dulai S, Kondrak M, Tarnai R, Szabo L, Toldi O et al. Effects of drought on water content and photosynthetic parameters in potato plants expressing the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Planta. 2008; 227:299–308.
Cicek N and Cakirlar H. The effect of salinity on some physiological parameters in two maize cultivars. Bulg J. Plant Physiol. 2002;28(1-2):66-74.
Sultana N, Ikeda T and Itoh R. Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Envtl. And Expl. Botany.1999;42: 211–220.
Webber HA, Madramootoo CA, Bourgault M, Horst MG, Stulina G and Smith DL. Water use efficiency of common bean and green gram grown using alternate furrow and deficit irrigation. Agric. Water Mgt. 2006;86:259-268.
Monneveux P, Sánchez C, Beck D and Edmeades GO. Drought tolerance improvement in tropical maize source populations: evidence of progress. Crop Sci. 2006;46:180–191.
Burns A, Gleadow R, Cliff J, Zacarias A and Cavagnaro T. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World. Sustainability. 2010;2:3572-3607. DOI:10.3390/su2113572.
Aina OO, Dixon AGO and Akinrinde EA. Effect of soil moisture stress on growth and yield of cassava in Nigeria. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 2007;10(18):3085–3090.
AI-Karaki GN. Barley response to salt stress at varied levels of phosphorus. J. of Plant Nutrition.1997;20(11):1635-1643.
Hu Y, Burucs Z and Schmidhalter U. Effect of foliar fertilization application on the growth and mineral nutrient content of maize seedlings under drought and salinity. Soil Sci. and Plant Nutrition. 2008; 54(1):133-141
Abstract View: 74 times
PDF Download: 24 times