Asian Journal of Research in Botany <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Botany</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRIB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Botany. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Asian Journal of Research in Botany en-US Asian Journal of Research in Botany Influence of Foliar Application with Some Natural Extracts and Nutrients Compounds on Nutritional Status of Washington Navel Orange Transplants <p>This research was conducted during the two consecutive seasons of 2018 and 2019 at the Fruit Nursery Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Benha University of Qalyubeia Governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of some natural treatments, e.g. Algae, Bread Yeast extract, Moringa leaves extract and nutrients as a compound containing both macro (N , P, K) and micro (Fe , Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu) elements and a compound containing macro and microelements and some growth regulators. These materials (natural extracts and nutrient compounds) were applied as a foliar spray to study their effect on nutritional status of Washington navel orange transplants budded on sour orange rootstock. at one-year-old plant. These materials were applied with different concentrations once a month started from the last week in April to the last week in follows: Blue-green algae extract (1, 2 and 3 ml/L), Yeast extract (10, 20 and 30 ml/L), Moringa leaves extract (2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/L). Nitro active 20: 20: 20 (commercial name) (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/L) and Estima green (commercial name) (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/L). In this study, the foliar application of Blue-green algae at 3 ml/L and Estima green at 0.5g/L resulted in a significant increase in nutritional status of Washington navel orange transplants i.e., total chlorophyll content and Leaf mineral composition (N%, P%, K%, Ca%, Mg%, Mn (ppm), Zn (ppm) and Fe (ppm). On the contrary, the lowest values of the above-mentioned Leaf chemical composition were typically in concomitance with T1-Control (water sprayed) which ranked statistically last during both study seasons.</p> M. N. A. Al- Sabbagh H. E. M. El- Badawy M. H. M. Baiea S. F. El- Gioushy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 1 15 Screening of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Genotypes for Adaptability in the Western Highlands of Cameroon <p>An experiment was conducted from 20<sup>th</sup> April to 11<sup>th</sup> August 2016 at Upper Farm Bambui with 16 potato genotypes to select those with best performance as promising candidates for variety release. The treatments were arranged in a randomised complete blocked design with four replications. Data were collected on vegetative, disease and yield parameters and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). All results obtained were significantly different (P=0.05). The mean Leaf Area Index (LAI) ranged from 123.83± 7.00 (for variety Cipira) to 206.70± 25.49 (for genotypes 392639.34). Mean number of stems ranged from 3.60± 0.60 (for genotype 392039.4) to 7.20± 1.04 (for genotype 392639.34). Plant heights ranged from 34.40± 1.59cm (for variety Jacob) to 51.67± 4.39cm (for genotype 395011.13). Stem diameters ranged from 0.65± 0.09cm (for genotype 395011.12) to 0.91± 0.07cm (for genotypes 395524.9, 396241.4) and were superior to the check varieties. Late blight was most severe in the check varieties compared to the genotypes evaluated indicating that genotypes with minor genes were resistant to late blight than existing varieties selected with major genes. The rAUDPC was used to rank late blight severity and it ranged from 0.01± 0.01 (for genotypes 393617.64) to 0.59±0.00 (for check variety Jacob). There was an inverse correlation between yield and late blight severity. Low rates of bacterial wilt and virus incidence were obtained, with maximum bacterial wilt incidence of 8.8% for genotype 393633.34 and virus incidence of 26.7% for 392639.34. Five genotypes were selected with good yields compared to the check varieties. The best five genotypes were 393084.31 (23.33 ton/ha), 393633.34 (23.22 ton/ha), 395524.9 (20.78 ton/ha), 396036.201 (20.56 ton/ha) and 395011.13 (20.0 ton/ha), compare to 12.89 and 17.00 ton/ha for Cipira and Jacob respectively. These five genotypes are therefore recommended for further screening to develop new varieties.</p> E. T. Tchio S. S. Meka D. K. Njualem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 16 27 Optimizing Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Plant Transplantation through Micropropogation <p><strong>Aims: </strong>A pot experiment was set to identify the most effective symbiotic couples during the acclimatization of <em>Solanum tuberosum</em> vitroplants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The answer to inoculation of 5 strains of MA fungi <em>Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, Rhizoglomus fasciculatum, Rhizoglomus intraradices, Rhizoglomus manihotis</em> is evaluated on potato varieties <em>Aïda, Atlas</em> and <em>Odessa</em>. For each variety, the experimental device was totally randomized with 5 replicates.&nbsp;The experiment lasted 3 months.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The <em>F. mosseae</em> strain has the highest mycorrhizal dependencies with 81.51% and 70% respectively in the <em>Atlas</em> and <em>Aïda</em> varieties. <em>Adessa</em> is less than 40% dependent on all strains of fungi tested. In the <em>Atlas</em> variety, the <em>F. mosseae </em>strain significantly stimulates the aerial biomass of the plants, which reaches 723.32 mg compared to the other mycorrhizal and control strains. The production of minitubers was stimulated by mycorrhizal fungi. In the <em>Aïda</em> variety, the two strains <em>F. mosseae</em> and <em>R. aggregatum</em> averaged 2.80 and 2.72 minitubers per plant, respectively. With the <em>Atlas</em> variety, <em>F. mosseae </em>and <em>R. intraradices</em> result in the most significant production of minitubers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The different species of fungi tested do not have the same level of efficiency towards these varieties. Nevertheless, they all promote plant development and potato production compared to non-ininoculated controls. Mycorrhizal dependence is more observed with both <em>Atlas</em> and <em>Aïda</em> varieties.</p> Bathie Sarr Mame Arame Fall Ndiaye Tahir Abdoulaye Diop ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 37 44 Effect of Sodium Chloride on Growth, Nodulation, Flowering & Yield of Pea Plant (Pisum sativum L.) under Photoperiods <p>Garden pea (<em>Pisum sativum</em> L.) is a popular nutritious vegetable crop grown in winter season through out of the world, belong to family Fabaceae .A study was made on the influence of sodium chloride upon the growth, chlorophyll content, nodulation, flowering and yield of Pea Plant (<em>Pisum sativum</em> L.) CV. P.Arkel under both photoperiod’s i.e. Long day and short days. The finding revealed that plant length, plant fresh and dry weight, leaf no. ,leaf area/ plant, Chlorophyll pigments, carotenoids, root nodules number, root nodules fresh &amp; dry weight, flower number &amp; pod number were higher under long days irrespective to short days in control. No significant effect was observed in the leaf area &amp; photosynthetic pigments with low concentration, while a significant decrease was noticed for each, with two higher concentrations (100,200mM) in photoperiods, ie.SD and LD. As evident from the data, the number of flowers was significantly higher under long days. Salt stress differentially affected the pod yields in both photoperiods. The number of pods was increased 61.5 % in long days, when compare to short days. The long day had more fresh and dry weight of pods in comparison to short days in CV. P. Arkel.</p> . Gulafshan M. A. Siddiqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 28 37 Soil-Woody Plant Relationship in Oban Forest Reserve, Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Relationship between soil and woody species were assessed in the forest reserve in view of highlighting plant diversity status, population density and nutrient-relations in the forest.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Systematic sampling method was used in sampling soil and vegetation parameters.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in the Oban Division of Cross River National Park, Nigeria, between November 2015 and July 2016.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Systematic sampling method was used in studying the vegetation and soil. A total of thirty plots were sampled in each season. Total area of vegetation sampled was 1500 m<sup>2</sup>. Soil samples were analyzed following the standard procedures outlined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result revealed a total of 24 species from 16 families and 23 plant species from 21 families in the wet and dry seasons respectively. <em>Coula</em> <em>edulis</em> was the most frequent plant species (100%) while <em>Baphia nitida, </em>recorded low frequency (20%) values. <em>Barteria nigitiana</em> (120±5.26) and<em> Diospyros mespiliformis</em> (120±6.20) dominated in density. <em>Berlinia confusa</em> was the tallest species (47.33±0.67 m) while <em>Anthocleista vogelli </em>was the smallest plant species (4.73±0.96 m). <em>Brachystegia nigerica</em> and <em>Berlinia confusa</em> had the widest crown coverage of 15.27±4.61 m<sup>2</sup>/ha and 15.27±4.73 m<sup>2</sup>/ha, respectively. <em>Brachystegia</em> <em>nigerica</em> had the largest basal area (0.42±0.07 m<sup>2</sup>/ha). Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were high in both wet (2.684 and 0.9029) and dry (2.968 and 0.9373) seasons respectively. Correlation analysis indicated significant relationship between woody species and soil edaphic factors. Stepwise multiple regression technique showed that soil variables predicted for the variations observed in vegetation parameters in both seasons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The pedological indices and nutrient status of soil play critical roles in plant species distribution and vegetation morphology in Oban Forest Reserve.</p> Essien, Imedimfon I. Ogbemudia, Felix O. Ezekiel, Anietie G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 38 52 Ten Year Progression of Musa Breeding from 1987 to 1997: 1. Pollination Success and Seed Production (Fecundity) Patterns among Multiple Ploidy Crosses <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To create genetic variability, produce seeds and ultimately develop disease resistant and agronomically desirable hybrids with good organoleptic quality bunches.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Multiple hand pollinations/ crosses in possible combinations of 2x, 3x and 4x as maternal/ seed and paternal/ pollen parents.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> International Institute of Tropical Agriculture High Rainfall Station (IITA), Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria. 1987 to 1997.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Utilizing over 320 landraces, varieties, cultivars, clones/ genotypes and IITA accessions obtained from plantain and banana growing regions worldwide, scientists performed numerous hand pollinations/ crosses in possible combinations of 2x, 3x and 4x as maternal/ seed and paternal/ pollen parents every day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were significant differences (<em>P</em>=.05) in number of seeds produced when diploids were used as maternal parents. Overall, 2x-2x produced 11times more seeds than the 2x-3x, and 54times more seeds than the 2x-4x. The 2x-2x crosses had double seed production maxima when crosses took place in June and July (8,300 seeds) and August and November (6,200 seeds) indicating a high level of fecundity. Only 2x-2x showed significantly positive correlation between seed production and pollination success (r = 0.617*). When triploids were maternal parents, there were significant differences (<em>P</em>=.05) in number of seeds produced. On average, 3x-2x produced 4times the number of seeds obtained from 3x-3x and 27times more than 3x-4x crosses. Seed production from triploids was 32times less than from diploids. The 3x-3x exhibited positively significant correlation between seed production and pollination success (r = 0.595*). With tetraploid maternal parents, there was significant difference (<em>P</em>=.05) in seed production when the male parent was diploid. High seed production (3,000-4,000) was achieved when pollination took place from June to October in the 4x-2x crosses. Seed production and pollination success in the 4x-2x were positively and highly significantly correlated (r = 0.865**).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In all crosses, diploid males produced the most seeds and pollination success increased as ploidy of maternal parent increased from diploid to tetraploid especially with diploid males.</p> Wilson, V. Tenkouano, A. Wilson G. F. Swennen, R. Vuylsteke D. Ortiz R. Crouch, J. H. H. Crouch, H. K. Gauhl, F. Pasberg-Gauhl, C. Austin P. D. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 53 67 Study on the Survival Condition of Black Rot (Corticium theae) Disease of Tea in Different Habitant <p>The experiment was conducted to find out the survival condition of Black Rot disease (<em>Corticium theae</em>) of tea. Samples and data were collected from experimental field, BTRI and the causing pathogen of Black Rot (<em>Corticium theae</em>) was detected. In dormant period after pruning, <em>Corticium theae </em>can be still found in plant debris and pruning litres as fruiting body which contains spores. These spores are often the dusty and colored part of a fungus that is easily moved in the wind or in water. These spores adhere to and germinate on the tea plant surface, produce germ tubes, followed by development of germ tube and sent an infection peg through the cuticle. Following penetration, these fungi initiates sub-cuticular intramural colonization and spreads rapidly throughout the tissue with both inter- and intracellular hyphae that kill cells and tissue as they advance.</p> S. K. Singha I. Ahmad R. Uddin M. S. Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 68 75 Studies on Chemical Properties of Three Utilized Agrowastes in Nigeria <p>Studies on chemical properties of three utilized agrowastes were conducted in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Rivers State University. The agrowastes investigated were sawdust, wood ash and cassava bran. Proximate composition of the assessed agro-wastes gave the following highest values for moisture (9.52±0.003), lipid (4.23±0.04) and carbohydrate (64.11±0.02) in cassava bran. Fibre and protein were highest in sawdust while ash content was highest for wood ash. Mineral assessment showed that sawdust had highest concentrations of iron (1.52±0.03), phosphorus (12.02±0.02) and potassium (11.01±0.02).&nbsp; Wood ash recorded highest values for calcium and magnesium. Highest value for sodium (0.70±0.00) was observed for cassava bran. Anti-nutrient screening revealed phytate, tannin and saponin with the highest values recorded in cassava bran. However, polyphenol and flavonoid recorded (2.81±0.02) and (4.21±0.01) for sawdust respectively. The cyanide concentration of the assessed cassava bran (2.52±0.03) was within the acceptable limit of FAO and WHO. In general, these agrowastes materials still possess essential nutrients and anti-nutrients that can be further utilized.</p> S. S. Agbagwa E. C. Chuku W. C. Worlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 76 80 Savannas Highlands of Cameroon: Floristic Composition, Functional Traits and Conservation Status <p><strong>Background:</strong> The savannas flora has been widely neglected in science and conservation policy throughout the world, so that this biodiversity component remains largely unknown.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess floristic diversity, ecological characteristics and conservation status of the savannas of the mounts Bamboutos (Western Cameroon).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The savannas studied were located in the Eastern slope of the mounts Bamboutos, in the Western Highlands of Cameroon. The natural savannas ecosystems had a significant biodiversity, a level of disturbance by local people like overgrazing, bush fires, collection of fuelwoods, etc.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The field work was conducted in the Eastern slope of the mounts Bamboutos (5°30ʼ - 5°45ʼ N and 10°03ʼ - 10°15ʼ E) between May and November 2012, 2013 and 2014.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Plant species identified were characterized by floristic diversity and life traits (habit, life form, leaf size, type of diaspore, dispersal syndromes and phytogeographical affinities).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The flora consisted of 231 taxa belonging to 154 genera and 70 families. Poaceae (39 species), Asteraceae (37 species) and Fabaceae (20 species) were the dominant families. The most frequent life forms were phanerophytes (41.12%) followed by chamaephytes (21.64%) and therophytes (20.34%). Leaf size classes of plants consisted of mesophylls (30.73%), nanophylls (25.54%) and microphylls (25.10%). Anemochory (45.88%) was dominated dispersal mode followed by zoochory (30.73%). Investigation of the geographical distribution of plant species indicated that 27.27 % belonged to the afrotropical zone and 18.61% pantropical species. Four species were endemic and four subendemic to Cameroon dorsal. 17 species were threatened according to IUCN red list.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Protection and conservation of natural resources of savannas is crucial for sustainable utilization of accessible natural flora so, it is strongly suggested to overgrazing and agricultural activities.</p> Wouokoue Taffo Junior Baudoin Avana Tientcheu Marie Louise Froumsia Moksia Hamawa Yougouda Christiana Ngyete Nyikob Mbogue Nguetsop Victor Francois Fonkou Theophile ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-09 2020-11-09 81 99 Effect of Different Substrates on the Nutritional Composition of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (Oyster Mushroom) <p><em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> is a widely cultivated mushroom across the globe, known for its nutritional and therapeutic properties with a low rate production technology and increased biological efficiency. This study was aimed at determining the nutritional composition of <em>P. ostreatus</em> grown on four dissimilar substrates. <em>P. ostreatus</em> was cultivated on sawdust, cornhusk, banana leaves and a combination substrate consisting all three via spawn inoculation. The first flushes from each substrate were harvested and air-dried to constant weight. The nutritional composition like moisture content, ash content, protein, carbohydrate and vitamins were evaluated according to standard procedures. Three out of the four substrates produced fruiting bodies. Cornhusk showed the highest value (49.03%) for carbohydrate content surpassing the other substrates while the mushroom sample from sawdust treatment showed the highest level of protein with a value of 32.10%. The vitamin contents evaluated for the three substrates presented a significant value in vitamin A and E, with vitamin C being the least vitamin composition ranging from 37.90 mg kg-1 in combination substrates to 38.80 mgkg-1 in sawdust sample. Above all, the combination substrate showed the least nutritional content amongst all the other values obtained. This study has shown that P. ostreatus grown on cornhusk had the highest carbohydrate while sawdust had the highest protein content hence, the use of these substrates is recommended for optimal nutritional benefits.</p> T. S. Ewekeye F. A. Abdulsalam A. A. Sanni A. Fadiora O. A. Oke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 100 105 Scientific Validation of HPTLC Method for Quantitative Estimation of Alkaloid and Flavonoids from Oxalis corniculata <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Oxalis corniculata </em>Linn. belongs to Oxalidaceae family. It is an herbaceous plant abundant in mountain regions of India. It is one of the most adaptable and popular medicinal plants having a broad spectrum of biological activity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of the work is to ascertain the level of an antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of <em>Oxalis corniculata </em>plant.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for quantitative estimation of alkaloids and flavonoids from leaf ethanol extract of <em>Oxalis corniculata </em>was developed. The method employed high-performance thin-layer chromatography aluminum plate, silica coated with fluorescent indicator F<sub>254</sub> (10x10 cm) as stationary phase and the separation was achieved by using a suitable mobile phase n-Butanol - Glacial acetic acid-water (3:-1:-1), ethyl acetate-butanone-formic acid-water (5:3:1:1) and Dragendorff’s reagent followed by 10% ethanolic sulphuric acid (for alkaloids) 1% ethanolic Aluminium chloride reagent (for flavonoids) were used for detection. The Peak table, Peak display and Peak densitogram were noted by using software winCATS 1.3.4 version.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the phytoconstitution, alkaloids and flavonoids found more abundant. Yellow, Yellowish blue fluorescent colour zone at UV 366 nm mode were there in the tracks, it was observed from the chromatogram after derivatization, which confirmed the presence of flavonoid. ABTS assay, the maximum scavenging activity was seen at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml and lowest 2 μg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The extracts of the aerial parts of <em>oxalis corniculata </em>are the source of natural antioxidants which can be accounted for the traditional uses in prevention of disease and health preservation.</p> . Ranjani . Patharaj . Kannan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 106 112