Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Powder on Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium sp of Tomato Plants in a Greenhouse

W. C. John, T. A. Ihum, M. O. Maipandi, M. Ishaya

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-7

This study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentration of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder against the fungal disease of Tomato plants in a greenhouse. The research was carried out in a greenhouse at the Federal College of Forestry in Jos, from February to April 2018. 2 × 3 factorial in completely randomised design was used. A total of 20 diseased tomato plants and 120 healthy tomato seedlings were collected from 3 different farms in Farin gada, Jos. Tomato seedlings were grown on sterile soil packaged in polythene bags mixed with Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder at different concentrations of 100, 150, and 200 g and inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium specie isolated from diseased tomato plants. the isolates were pre-grown in sterile peptone water for 72 hours and replicated thrice. Inoculated non-amended soil served as control. The Effect of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder against inoculated fungi was determined by tomato plant heights, root length and number of the leaf after eight weeks of transplanting. Data were analysed using one way ANOVA at P = 0.05. The result showed an inhibitory effect at different concentrations with significant difference among all treatment. 50 g of Vernonia amgydalina powder against Fusarium specie gave the highest activity which is revealed in plant height =54.33, number of leaf =31.11 and root length = 19.50. The result obtained indicated that Vernonia amgydalina leaf powder could serve as a biological agent in prevention and control of the tomato plants soil-borne disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Aerial Part of Rice Plant from Kware Lake

A. Abdullahi, M. T. Muhammad, J. Suleiman, R. M. Sokoto

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-8

A study was conducted to isolate, identify and establish the Pathogenecity test of bacteria associated with diseases affecting the aerial part of rice in kware lake. Bacteria was isolated from the infected parts collected from Kware Lake and identified by microscopy and biochemical tests. The isolated bacterial were Staphylococcus aureus, Xanthomonas oryzae, Staphylococcus intermedius, Clostridium noryi, Pseudomonas putida, Corynoebacterium xerosis, and Bacillus macerans. However, Staphylococcus aureus, occurred more frequently with 32.93%, followed by Xanthomonas oryzae 27.44%, Corynoebacterium xerosis 20.73%, then Staphylococcus intermedius 14.63%, Baccilus macerans 2.44%, Clostridium noryi 1.22% and Pseudomonas putida with 0.61%. The biochemical reactions include: citrate test, spore test, indole test, starch hydrolysis, urease test, catalyse test, gas formation, glucose, sucrose and lactose test, motility test, H2S production and gram reactions, but only two of the identified bacteria caused infection to the plant after undergoing pathogenecity test. They are therefore recommended for the possible infection of the aerial part of rice caused by these pathogenic bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study on Wealth of Homegardens in Gosiling Gewog of Tsirang District

Bimal Kumar Chetri, Lekh Raj Ghalley, Dorji Penjor, Kesang Dechen, Thinley Gyeltshen

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-11

Aim: To document the medicinal uses of homegarden plants by local healers.

Study Design:  Semi-structured interview was conducted with the prior approval from the gewog official. Five local healers were contacted for interview before field visits based on their popularity and experience of using medicinal plants in their locality.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Gosiling gewog, Tsirang District, Bhutan between May and June 2016. The homegarden and agricultural practices are common amongst people in this gewog.

Methodology: Six local healers were identified based on their experience on ethnomedical practice. Multiple approaches were taken such as botanical inventories, collection of plant specimens, structured and informal interviews with local healers including freelisting and preference ranking to collect the information on medicinal use/s using questionnaires.

Results: Forty six plant species from 45 genera and 37 families were recorded with their ethnomedicinal uses by the local healers against various ailments and diseases.

Conclusion: This study suggests that most of the medicinal plants available within homegardens are commonly used by the healers.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Multiplication of Oroxylum indicum (L.) through Apical and Axillary Buds and Determination of Genetic Fidelity Using RAPD Markers

Dhananjaya Sasalu Panchaksharaiah, Gururaj Chalageri, Uddagiri Venkanna Babu

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-11

Present study involves to develop a protocol for large scale multiplication of Oroxylum indicum L. plants through apical and axillary buds using in vitro techniques. The apical and axillary buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin. The maximum number of shoots were observed on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM of BAP. Rooting was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM of BAP and 7.38 µM of Indole-3-butyric acid. The well-developed plants were hardened in peat and perlite (1:1) and acclimatized in green house and 98% survival rate was observed and then shifted to field for cultivation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. Ten different decamer primers were used to amplify genomic DNA from in vitro field grown plants and the mother plant to assess the genetic stability. The RAPD profile analysis revealed that micropropagated plants has no somaclonal variations with the mother plants. These results suggest that the micropropagation protocol developed by this study for rapid in vitro multiplication is appropriate and applicable for clonal mass propagation of Oroxylum indicum which helps in silviculture developments.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Antioxidant Properties of Some Selected Medicinal Plants from Kandhamal District of Odisha, India

Suraj Kumar Behera, Chinmayee Mohanty, A. Leelaveni

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-9

Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants of Kandhamal district of Odisha have not reported, while these plants such as Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA), Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (TC), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees (AP), Lantana camara L. (LC), Mimosa pudica L. (MP), Justicia adhatoda L. (JA), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Cyperus rotundus L. (CyR), Piper nigrum L. (PiN), Ocimum sanctum Linn. (OS), Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don (CaR) and Clitoria ternatea L. (CT) are used to treat different ailments like malaria, rheumatoid, cold and cough, piles, diarrhoea and tooth ache etc. The present work aimed to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as in vitro antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of medicinal plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin- Ciocalteu and, aluminium chloride method with standard gallic acid and rutin respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl- 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide assay. The total phenolic content of medicinal plants varied from 44.53 to 297.07 mg/g while the flavonoid content was varied from 14.03 to 60.49 mg/g. In conclusion, these plants are rich sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidants and they could be used as a natural antioxidant.