Open Access Short Research Article

The Influence of Buttonwood Ash Application on Growth of Cowpea Seedling

Sadaf Arshad, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Kabir, Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqi

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-6

Aim: Large quantities of wood ash released in the environment from the different industrial activities such as wood industries, paper industries, power plants, energy generation plant causes pollution or plant, are largely part of environmental pollutants. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) tree bark wood ash using as different (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%) applications on seedling growth performance of an important legume crop cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) L. Walp. growing in different parts of Pakistan.

Study Design: The effect of buttonwood ash application on seedling growth performance in legume crop cowpea was recorded.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the green house at the Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan, during the month of August – September and lasted for forty days.

Methodology: Ash of trunk and branches of buttonwood after burning, the buttonwood ash was collected in jars and the experiments were conducted in pots. The pots were filled up to 2/3 with soil. The concentrations of the button wood ashes taken in this experiment were 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%, respectively. The growth experiment was conducted in pots filled with garden loam soil. The healthy seeds of cowpea were surface sterilized with 0.2% solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for one minute to avoid any fungal contamination. In pot, the wood ash was applied in a concentration of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%. Ten seeds of cowpea were sown in each pot and pots were placed in an open field and watered when required. Without wood ash treatment, the plant was used as a control. For dry weights, the root and shoots were dried at 80ºC for 48 hours in the oven. The growth of cowpea was recorded in buttonwood ash including their germination percentage, length of shoot and roots, number of leaves and leaf size.

Results: In present studies, the significant (p<0.05) impact of button wood ash on shoot length, seedling growth and leaf area of cowpea was observed in pot system. Increase in concentration of buttonwood ash from 4 to 20% decreased root growth. Wood ash treatment at 4% concentration significantly (p<0.05) affected shoot dry weight of cowpea. All treatment also affected root, leaf and seedling dry weight of cowpea.

The seedlings of cowpea were tested for tolerance to different (4, 8, 12, 16, 20%) concentrations of buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) ash. The seedlings of cowpea showed the varied response of tolerance to wood ash. The results showed that V. unguiculata seedlings showed a high percentage of tolerance at 12% and better at 4 and 16% of buttonwood wood ash treatment. The lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of cowpea to wood ash treatment was found at 20% concentration. 

Conclusion: The results of the present studies concluded that the treatment of buttonwood ash at all level (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20%) responsible for the variation in seedling growth performances of cowpea. An increase in the concentration of buttonwood ash treatment 4 to 20% produced significant (p<0.05) effects on shoot length, seedling length and leaf area of cowpea as compared to control. The button wood ash treatment produced no marked effects on root growth, root dry weight, total plant dry weight and specific leaf area of cowpea as compared to without button wood ash treatment. The treatment of button wood ash decreased the tolerance indices with 8% buttonwood ash treatments. Overall, the results suggest that cowpea has a potential of high cultivation in the presence of buttonwood ash at less than 20% concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity Studies and Phytochemical Constituents of Different Solvents Extracts of Carica papaya Seeds

M. A. Kanadi, A. J. Alhassan, A. L. Ngwen, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir, A. M. Wudil

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-9

Aim: To investigate the effect of five extraction solvents of varying polarity, namely aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane on phytochemicals yield and composition of Carica papaya seed. The acute toxicity test of each solvent fraction was also carried out and the average weight of rats in each group was measured before and after the experiment.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening, both qualitative and quantitative was carried out using standard methods and procedures. Acute toxicity study was conducted by determining the LD50 of each extract.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from April 2018 to August 2018.

Results: The results shows that the higher the solvent polarity, the better the yield of extract thus the extract yield was higher in aqueous followed by methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane in that order. Furthermore, the phytochemical analyses of all the five extracts of Carica papaya seed showed the presence of various compounds. The phytochemicals include flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycoside in varying amounts. Anthraquinones was not detected in all the five extracts. The LD50 of the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n- hexane extracts of Carica papaya seed in rat was greater than 5000 mg /kg body weight while the results of the weight changes shows that there is no statistically significant (p>0.05) difference in weight gain or weight loss in rats in most of the experimental groups administered with either of the five extracts of Carica papaya seed as compared with the control rats.

Conclusion: It was concluded that Carica papaya seed contain bioactive phytochemicals which yield is highest when extracted with water and that the plant material could have clinical potential with safe therapeutic application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Poultry Manure and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Synergy Improves Saline Soil Properties, Growth and Physiology in Cucurbita maxima Duch

Okon, Okon Godwin

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-11

Aims: To assess the potential impacts of poultry manure (PM) amendment on saline soil properties and its synergy with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass yield and survival of C. maxima.

Study Design: The experiment was set up in complete block design of four (4) treatments with three (3) replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were obtained from the saline ecosystem of Iwuochang (Latitude 4.56°N and Longitude 7.57°E), Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. All analysis was carried out in Soil Science Laboratory and Botany Laboratory, Akwa Ibom State University, between January and March 2019.

Methodology: Soil samples were analyzed following the standard procedures outlined for wet acid digestions. Growth parameters were determined using standard methods. At leaf chlorophyll meter was employed in the assessment of the photosynthetic pigments of the experimental plant. Electrolyte leakage was assessed using the HANNA instrument conductivity meter. Leaf relative water content (LRWC), vigour index (VI) and plant salt-tolerant index (PSTI) was calculated using standard formulas.

Results: Physicochemical analysis of the saline and poultry manure augmented soils indicated significant (P =.05) difference between the two soil types in pH, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, clay, sand, Ex. Ca, Mg, K, Na, OC and EC. Reduction in shoot length, number of leaves and leaf area as well as Chl a, b, carotenoids and total photosynthetic pigments (from 39.7 to 21.30 mg/kg-1) of C. maxima were all significantly (P =.05) affected by soil salinity stress. PSTI was significantly reduced while EL increased in saline soil treatments. Inoculation with AMF alone or together with PM significantly (P =.05) increased the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and physiological parameters in C. maxima both in saline and non-saline soil treatments.

Conclusion: The results of this work have shown that AMF and PM synergy can enhance the ability of C. maxima to resist salt stress possibly through some morphological and physiological changes which improve vigour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya

Ruth Adeka, Catherine Lukhoba, Judith Odhiambo, Patrick Maundu

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-15

Aims: The study set out to find the existence of variation in leaf bitterness of spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in six (6) agro-ecological zones in Kenya and whether levels of leaf bitterness correlated with morphological characters; colour of main stem including colour of leaf blade, stem pubescence and leaf waxiness.

Study Design: Morphological characterization was done using purposive sampling method while organoleptic characterization was done using a ‘within participants’ method.

Place and Duration of Study: Coast, Eastern, Central, Rift Valley and Nyanza regions of Kenya representing agro-ecological zones; upper highlands, lower highlands, upper midlands, lower midlands, inland lowlands and coastal lowlands, sampled between 2016-2017.

Methodology: Morphological characterization for Gynandropsis gynandra was done using IPGRI descriptors in 18 sites selected on the basis of agro-ecological zones. Mature healthy seeds of spider plant were collected from the accessions characterized and grown at Nairobi Botanic Garden using a randomized block design. Organoleptic testing was done on 40 spider plant accessions which grew to maturity. Qualitative analysis performed on four (4) qualitative traits; colour of main stem, stem pubescence, leaf waxiness and colour of leaf blade was correlated to levels of bitterness using Pearson correlational analysis. Leaf bitterness and colour of leaf blade showed significant variation in six agro-ecological zones. Leaf bitterness levels were high in coastal lowlands and lower midlands and low in highlands. Colour of leaf blade strongly associated with leaf bitterness while others correlated weakly. Gynandropsis gynandra specimens were grouped into two (2) main clusters which were further divided into eight (8) clusters in the dendogram based on level of leaf bitterness.

Changes in agro-ecology had a significant effect on the level of bitterness while the colour of the leaf blade was a strong indicator of the level of leaf bitterness of spider plant. The colour of leaf blade was recommended for distinguishing non-bitter types from bitter types of spider plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Modulated Water Application on Shoot Size, Flower and Fruit Production in Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)

Ofobeze, Tochukwu Nosike, Chukwubeze Chiduziem Patience, Uba, Chibuzo Christain

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-8

Aim: To study the effect of modulated water application on size of above ground structures of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench) and its productivity.

Objective: The objective is to find out which of the four options of modulated water application gave earliness to maturity, size and production for the plant.

Methodology: This work was carried out in a screen house of the department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, of a local variety (Jokoson) were planted in plastic pots of 30 cm diameter, holding 17 kg of loam soil. The post received water by sprinkling to the tune of 3400 ml after considering the drainage upper limit (DUP) of the soil. The plants received NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer. Modulated water stress treatment was given. Each treatment has five replicate and performed in a complete randomized design (CRD). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on collected data was performed using SPSS version 20.

Results: Morphological parameter like leaf area and plant height was observed under the options of the modulated water application treatment. Mean Leaf area of plants observed at weekly interval showed that treatments affected the growth pattern and anthesis. The result at 49 days after germination gave 1034.35 cm2, 805.26 cm2, 900.35 cm2 and 715.97 cm2, for T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively and was significant at p≤0.05. Consequently, the mean number of flowers produced per plant at 49 DAG (Days After Germination) gave 6.00, 4.00, 4.00 and 4.00 for T1, T2, T3, and T4. Also the mean number of flowers which developed into fruits was obtained as 6.00, 4.00, 3.00 and 2.00 for T1, T2, T3, and T4. Correlations factor between the flower productions against fruit production was significant at p≤0.01 (2-tailed) for T3 and T4.

Conclusion: Regular water application at two-day interval throughout (T1) to the crop plant gave earliness, higher number of fruit and vegetative production than the interrupted water application at some developmental stage of the plant.