In Africa, the use of plants for therapeutic purposes is an ancient practice. In recent years, much scientific work has been spent to the chemistry and toxicology of medicinal plants; there is a particular focus on natural antioxidants in relation to their various therapeutic properties. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to determine the antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroethanol extracts from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss a plant known for its many pharmacological properties.
The leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss were oven dried at 60 degrees for 24 hours and reduced to a fine powder. And, the powder is first extracted with distilled water to obtain the aqueous extract, then with a mixture of distilled water and ethanol 50/50 (v / v) to obtain the hydroethanol extract. Antioxidant activity was done through the DPPH test, the FRAP method and the fixation of the radical nitro-oxide (NO).
The results revealed that for the DPPH test, the hydro-ethanol extract is more active (IC50=9.9±0.14 mcg/ml) compared to the activity of the water extract (IC50= 11±0.28 mcg/ml). For the FRAP method, we note absorbance of 0.56 and 1.05 respectively for water and hydro-ethanol extract at a concentration (166.7 µg/ml). On the other hand, for the inhibition of radical nitro-oxide (NO), activity is low for the two extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss respectively of 36.94±2.1% for the aqueous extract and 26.03±2.52% for the hydroethanol extract.
This work highlights the antioxidant properties of Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extracts. Which give credit to certain data ethnopharmacological uses of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, but, study benefits must be carried out to support this use especially on toxicology.
A survey was conducted on nematodes associated with soils of farmlands around Kware Lake, Kware local government area of Sokoto State. The aim this research is to determine the species composition and distribution of nematodes in farmlands around Kware Lake. Sampling was carried out from July to September, 2016. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0-15 m. Centrifugation technique was used for the extraction of nematodes and viewed under the microscope. Results indicates that seven species were detected whose richness varied with respect to sites. The nematodes detected were Xiphinema spp., Heterodera spp., Trichodorus spp., Meloidogyne spp., Rotylenchus spp., Longidorus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. The most abundant nematodes isolated were Meloidogyne spp. (29.63%) while Pratylenchus spp. were found to be least abundant (2.22%). This is because Meloidogyne was very widely distributed and affect a wide variety of crops while Pratylenchus was a migratory endoparasite and can be ascertain by its high population in the root. There was no significant difference on nematode species occurrence between the three sampling sites at p<0.05. The result showed there was wide diversity of nematodes inhabiting the study area with diversity index of 1.77. The presence of plant parasitic nematodes in the soils of farmlands around Kware Lake highlights need for prevention and control of nematode species, so as to reduce the risk of losses to agricultural yield.
The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during October 2017 to February 2018 to find out the growth, yield and economic benefit of garden pea as influenced by date of sowing and different levels of phosphorus. The research comprised of two factors: Factor A: Sowing time (three levels) as S1=15 November, S2=25 November, S3=5 December and Factor B: Phosphorus fertilizer (four levels) as P0= Control (No Phosphorus), P1=50 kg P2O5/ha, P2=75 kg P2O5/ha, P3=100 kg P2O5/ha. The experiment was set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Sowing time and phosphorus influenced significantly on most of the parameters. Sowing time, S2 (25 November) performed best in number of pods per plant (12.10), number of seeds per pod (4.62) and green pod yield (8.48 ton) per hectare and minimum in S3 (5 December) treatment. Application of phosphorus, P2 (75 kg P2O5) performed best in number of pods per plant (12.70), number of seeds per pod (4.90) and green pod yield (9.23 ton) per hectare and minimum in P0 (control) treatment. Among the treatment combination S2P2 treatment gave the highest green pod yield (10.50 t/ha) and the lowest (4.48 t/ha) was obtained from S3P0 treatment. Combination of 25 November sowing with 75 kg P2O5was the best for growth, pod formation and seed formation of garden pea. From the economic point of view, the highest Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) was (2.35) noted from S2P2 and the lowest (1.02) from S3P0. It was evident that the S2P2 gave the best performance for the growth, yield and economic benefit of garden pea. So, it was concluded that, the combination of 25 November sowing with 75 kg P2O5 can be used for commercial garden pea production.
The investigation was carried out to characterize the chlorophyll components and carotenoids of the leaves of some local and exotic genotypes of sweetpotato viz. Local-1, Local-2, Local-5, Local-8, Exotic-1, Exotic-2, Exotic-4 and BARI SP-4 and their effect on production of total dry matter and storage roots dry weight during November 2016 to March 2017 at farmer’s field of Dashpara village of Sylhet Sadar Upazila, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Fresh leaves of 5-6th position from the top of vine were collected from the research field into polybag with proper tagging and brought to the laboratory in the morning of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Collected leaves were washed, wiped out of excess water, cut into small pieces, mixed thoroughly, and 250 mg of leaf materials were taken in a mortar. Leaf materials were grinded finely by a pestle with 25 ml of cold 80% acetone for two minutes. Sample tubes were centrifuged for 10 minutes. The homogenate was filtered and made up to 25 ml with cold 80% acetone. The centrifuged samples were incubated in dark for half an hour. The optical density (OD) for each solution was measured at 663, 645 and 440.5 nm against 80% acetone as blank in one cm cell of spectrophotometer. Triplicate estimation was done for each sample. Chemical analyses were performed at Regional Laboratory of Soil Resource Development Institute, Sylhet. Statistical analyses was done using MSTATC software following analysis of variance technique and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Results showed that chlorophyll-a gradually increased up to 60 DAP in all genotypes, thereafter continued only in Exotic-4, Exotic-3 and Local-1 up to 90 DAP. The highest amount of chlorophyll-a (10.27±0.45 mg 100 gfw-1) was in Local-1 at 90 DAP. The highest amount of chlorophyll-b was in Exotic-3 (19.13±0.53 mg 100 gfw-1) followed by Local-1 (16.85±0.50 mg 100 gfw-1) at 30 DAP. Carotenoids content in leaves of all genotypes increased gradually up to 90 DAP and thereafter decreased except Exotic-4. The highest carotenoids was in Exotic-3 (10.78 mg 100 gfw-1) followed by Local-1 (10.13 mg 100 gfw-1) at 90 DAP. At 120 DAP, the highest storage roots weight was in Local-8 (232.40±5.97 g plant-1), followed by Local-1 (187.50±5.23 g plant-1). Chlorophylls and carotenoids had no significant effect on total dry matter and storage roots dry weights at 30 DAP. At 120 DAP, all chlorophyll components and carotenoids had positive correlation with total dry matter (TDM) and storage roots dry weights. Genotypes Local-1, Local-8 had the higher chlorophylls while Exotic-3, Local-1 and Local-8 had the higher carotenoids. Genotypes Local-1 and Local-8 showed the highest storage roots dry weight.
HIV / AIDS infection is characterized by the reduction of the body's defenses favoring the occurrence "opportunistic" infections, as furuncle, encephalitis and tuberculosis etc. Thus, to fight against this virus, antiretrovirals are used.
The Kaolack and Fatick District have a prevalence rate (2.1%) above the national average of 0.7%. The aim of this study is to inventory the plants used against the treatment of opportunistic HIV / AIDS diseases because the populations often resort to phytotherapy. It is in this sense that a survey of twenty seven herbalists, Seventeen tradipraticians and eleven resource persons was conducted to identify the plants used in the management of opportunistic AIDS diseases. One hundred fifteen plants could be identified and divided into ninety seven genera and forty seven families. Some species have been mentioned very frequently and in many diseases. These are: Pterocarpus erinaceus (60%), Acacia nilotica (58.1%), Ficus thonningii (54.5%), Detarium microcarpum (52.7%), Guiera senegalensis (45.4%), Lepisanthes senegalensis (36,4%), Adansonia digitata L. (31%) etc. Leaves and barks constituted the greatest use in the form of decocted, macerated, for drinking, inhalating, or fumigation, etc. The result of this study was shown that medicinal plants are promising in managing HIV/AIDS related diseases. Further investigations are needed to explore the bioactive compounds of these herbal medicines, aimed at exploring the bioactive compounds that can be developed into anti-HIV drugs.
The experiment was conducted on the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during Rabi season to determine the growth, yield and economic benefit of chilli as influenced by plant growth regulators. The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Plant growth regulators (three levels) as G0: Control, G1: NAA (40 ppm), G2: Cytokinin (10 ppm) and Factor B: Application method (three levels) as M1: Seed soaking with plant growth regulators for 6 hours, M2: Foliar spray of plant growth regulators at vegetative stage, M3: Foliar spray of plant growth regulators at flower bud initiation stage. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. In the case of plant growth regulators, the highest yield (33.56 t/ha) was found from G1 treatment, whereas the lowest (13.85 t/ha) from G0 treatment. For the application method, maximum yield (27.12 t/ha) was recorded from M3 treatment, while the minimum yield (19.92 t/ha) from M1 treatment. Due to combined effect, the highest yield (38.10 t/ha) with net income (1075498) and BCR (3.39) was observed from G1M3 treatment combination, while the lowest yield (11.22 t/ha) with net income (147131) and BCR (1.49) from G0M1 treatment combination. So, the economic analysis revealed that the G1M3 treatment combination appeared to be the best for achieving the higher growth, yield and economic benefit of chilli.
An ethno-apicultural survey was carried out for the plant species pollinated by honey bees in the Tambacounda District (East Senegal). This survey was conducted among 85 actors with a well-established questionnaire concerning beekeepers in this District. The listed melliferous flora was made of forty five species either. It’s divided in forty one genera and seventeen families though the most represented are in decreasing order Fabaceae with 12 species (26.66%) followed by Combretaceae and Malvaceae with six species (13.33% each), Poaceae with three species (6.66% each), then Anacardiaceae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae and Rubiaceae with two species (4.44% each) and then Apocynaceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Sapindaceae, Balanitaceae, Myrtaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae with 1 species (2.22% each). The most cited species such as melliferous plants are : Pterocarpus erinaceus, Anacardium occidentale, Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica and Musa sapientum. The trees are more large with 40% followed by shrubs with 33.33%, herbs which represent 24.44% and then Lianas 2.22%. Melliferous plants include 42.22% nectariferous and nectariferous polliniferous plants followed with 13.33% polliniferous and finally meliferous species with 2.22%. This study enabled us to identify six (06) species with high melliferous value. To valorize these plants and thus preserve them against abusive cuts, it is important to carry out a policy by bringing together the actors of the beekeeping industry for a better knowledge of these meliferous plants.
Poulk plant (Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn. ex Grossh.) is one of the medicinal plants with a long history in traditional medicine and is used to remedy many diseases. Polk plant possesses some properties, including the internal anti-infectious, antibacterial, Anti-asthma, anti-sinusitis, anti-inflammatory and it is used to remedy the respiratory inflammatory diseases and has been identified asa natural penicillin. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial effects of ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-hexane of the Poulk plant against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella enterica. In this study, extracting was done by Soxhlet extractor with ethanolic, 2-Propanol and n-hexane solvents and after evaporation of the solvent and methylation by the rotary evaporator, the obtained substance was injected into the GC-MASS and the substance was detected, as well as the Inhibition zone, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) studies were carried out. The ranges of MIC and MBC of ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-hexane for MIC were 0.78-12.5%, 0.78 -6.25% and 12.5-50%, respectively. MBC for ethanolic extract, 2-Propanol and n-Hexane were 0.78-12.5%, 0.78 -6.25% and 12.5-100%, respectively.
The experiment was conducted during October 2017 to February 2018 in the Horticultural farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207. The experiment consisted of two factors: Factor A: Vermicompost (3 levels) as- Vr0: No vermicompost (control condition); Vr1: 4 ton vermicompost/ha, Vr2: 8 ton vermicompost/ha; and Factor B: Plant vitalizer (4 levels) as- Vi0: No vitalizer (control condition), Vi1: 2 ml vitalizer/L water,Vi2: 4 ml vitalizer/L water and Vi3: 6 ml vitalizer/L water. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different levels of vermicompost and plant vitalizer influenced significantly on most of the recorded parameters. In case of different levels of vermicompost, the highest marketable yield (52.30 t/ha) was observed from Vr2 treatment, while the lowest (38.47 t/ha) from Vr0 treatment. For different levels of plant vitalizer, the highest marketable yield (51.62 t/ha) was found from Vi3, whereas the lowest (39.62 t/ha) from Vi0 treatment. The highest marketable yield (33.83 t/ha) was observed from Vr2Vi3, while the lowest (58.77 t/ha) from Vr0Vi0 treatment combination. The highest benefit cost ratio (2.64) was found from Vr2Vi3 and the lowest (1.67) was obtained from Vr0Vi0. So, combination of 8 ton vermicompost/ha and foliar application of 6 ml vitalizer/l water canbe used for red cabbage cultivation.
Aims: The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of priming on early vegetative growth of varieties of orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP- Ipomoea batatas L.)
Study Design: Treatments were 2 OFSP varieties primed in coconut water, grapefruit juice, mixture of coconut water and grapefruit juice and water (control), in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the screen house of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Port Harcourt Nigeria for a period of 3 months.
Methodology: Nodal vines of 2 varieties of orange fleshed sweet potato UMUSPO 1 “King J”, and UMUSPO 3 “Mothers Delight” were primed in 10% coconut water, 10% grapefruit juice and a mixture of 10% coconut water and 10% grapefruit juice and water (control) for six hours before planting in plastic containers. Time to new sprouting was recorded. Six weeks after planting, number of leaves, nodes, internodes, and vine length were recorded.
Results: Nodal vines of both varieties primed with coconut water and water (control) and those of the variety UMUSPO 3 primed with grapefruit juice initiated sprouts significantly (P =.05) earlier (4 days) than other treatments. Both varieties primed with coconut water and grapefruit juice mixture initiated new sprouts after 7 days. The variety UMUSPO 1 produced higher number of leaves, nodes, and internodes and had longer vines than UMUSPO 3 in all treatments. Priming with mixture of coconut water and grapefruit juice produced a significantly (P = .05) higher number of leaves, nodes, internodes and vine length in UMUSPO 1 than all other treatments.
Conclusion: To double vegetative growth for planting materials, farmers should prime nodal vines of UMUSPO 1 with a mixture of 10% coconut water and 10% grapefruit juice for six hours before planting.
Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether excised buds (EB) or half corms (HC) from 3 Musa genotypes at four growth stages of mother plants would produce the most plantlets and to find out the effects of scarification on number of plantlets regenerated.
Study Design: Treatments comprised three Musa genotypes at four growth stages and two macro-propagation methods – excised bud and half-corm in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications.
Place and Duration of Study: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) High Rainfall Station, Onne (4°51’N, 7° 03’E, 10 m above sea level), Rivers State, Nigeria for eighteen months.
Methodology: Propagules, excised buds and half corms from a tetraploid cooking banana hybrid BITA 3; tetraploid plantain hybrid PITA 14, and a cooking banana landrace Cardaba, at 6-month vegetative, pre-flowering, post-flowering and bunch harvest stages were planted to regenerate plantlets. At bunch harvest growth stage, additional excised buds and half corms were scarified to find out the effect on regeneration of plantlets.
Results: Excised buds and half corms did not differ significantly (P = .05) in number of plantlets produced in PITA 14 irrespective of growth stage but bunch harvest stage was best. In BITA 3, excised buds produced significantly more plantlets than half corms at the 6-month vegetative and bunch harvest stages. However, at the pre-flowering stage, half corms produced significantly more plantlets than excised buds. In Cardaba, half corms were significantly better at all growth stages especially bunch harvest stage. In all Musa genotypes, scarification increased significantly the number of plantlets.
Conclusion: This study found that PITA 14 is best propagated by excised buds or half corms irrespective of growth stage. For BITA 3, excised buds either at 6-month vegetative or bunch harvest stage; or use of half corm at pre-flowering stage was best. Half corm at any stage is best for Cardaba.
Fibre dimensions are of great significance due to their strong relationship with the strength properties of wood and paper. The fibre characteristics of three selected plant species (Verbenaceae family - Duranta erecta and Lantana camara, Lamiaceae family- Vitex doniana ) were determined and their pulp and paper making potentials were compared with that of Gmelina arborea. The mean fibre lengths of the species were found to be short since they were less than 1.6mm. Gmelina arborea has the highest slenderness ratio with a mean value of 29.8241±1.0928 and the highest coefficient of flexibility (0.8584±0.0109). The Runkel ratio was highest in Duranta erecta recording an average of 0.6507±0.0638. However, the derived fibre values: slenderness ratio, coefficient flexibility and Runkel ratio of the species studied were considered to be good paper making potentials, therefore, making Duranta erecta, Lantana camara, and Vitex doniana a suitable substitute for Gmelina arborea in the papermaking industries.
The phenological events of 68 reproductive mature Gmelina arborea trees were monitored at three different periods, every month along the year in Idemili South forests for two consecutive annual cycles. Leaf initiation started with the emergence of leaf buds in first March, coinciding with the transition between the end of dry season and the beginning of rainy season. Leaf flushing started mid-June and peaked later in June. The leafing duration lasted for approximately 5 months. Leaf fall phase started in December and ended in January. Flower initiation started in mid January and peaked in late February, concentrated in the dry months. The flowering duration lasted for approximately 1 month. Flowering intensity was slightly higher in 2018 in all the populations. Fruiting phenology proceeded from early to the end of March. Fruits were mature by the end of March immediately before early significant rains. Fruiting duration from initiation to fruit drop lasted for approximately 2.5 months. The time lag between leaf flushing and first visible flowers was approximately 4 months. Low average asynchrony index (A.I.) was recorded for leafing (A.I.: 0.23), flowering (A.I.: 0.22), and fruiting (A.I.: 0.19) events among the populations. The results of this study have provided some information on aspects of the reproductive biology of the species for breeding and biodiversity conservation purposes. Since the phenophases are periodic and follow weather patterns, probable climate change will have serious implications on future reproductive success of G. arborea. In view of this, multiannual quantitative documentation of phenological patterns in the species is recommended to quantify the levels of variance, and thus trace the impacts of climate changes on the vegetation of the area.