Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Vegetative and Floral Morphology of Three Ipomoea Species from Nigeria

K. U. Ekwealor, C. F. Iroka, C. N. Okereke, G. C. Ukpaka

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 1-7

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the different vegetative and floral morphological features of three species of Ipomoea; Ipomoea aquatica, Ipomoea asarifolia and Ipomoea involucrate.

Area of Study, Collection and Identification of Plants: The study was conducted in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra state of Nigeria. Three species were selected from the genus Ipomoea, they include: Ipomoea asarifolia, Ipomoea involucrate and Ipomoea aquatica. All the samples were collected from different locations across Nnamdi Azikiwe University premises.

Methodology and Statistical Analysis: The Morphological study was done by physical observation and measurement of physiognomic features of the fresh flower, leaf and stem. Plant type and growth habit were done by physical observation. The flower of each specimen was sectioned longitudinally and transversely to observe their placentation, stamen and carpel. The length of the sepal, petal, stamen and carpel were measured with a meter rule (cm). Counts were taken of the number of stamen, carpel, sepal, the inflorescence type, the floral symmetry, the number of sepal and petal colour were all observed and recorded carefully. The leaf texture, leaf arrangement, leaf shape, leaf type, leaf margin, leaf venation, leaf apex, leaf base were observed also and recorded.  Data collected were analyzed using confidence interval at 95%, one way analysis of variance and mean separation by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) using SPSS version 21.

Results: Result of the vegetative morphology of three species of Ipomoea revealed that the three species are trailing herbs.  The leaf shape is cordate for all species. The leaf apex of I. asarifolia is rounded while that of I. involucrata and I. aquatica is acuminate.  The leaf base for I. asarifolia and I. involucrate is cordate while that of I. aquatic is truncate. The leaf arrangement and leaf venation is alternate and reticulate respectively for all species studied. The result on the quantitative vegetative characters revealed that the petiole is longer in I. asarifolia (13.655-16.045b) and shorter in I. involucrata (3.805-4.815 cm). The leaf length is also higher in I. asarifolia (9.522-10.898 cm) and lower in I. aquatic (4.273-4.887 cm). The leaf width is higher in I. asarifolia (11.799-12.301 cm) and lower in I. aquatic (4.351-5.29 cm). There was a significant difference in all quantitative vegetative characters studied (p<0.05). Result of the floral morphology of three species of Ipomoea revealed that the flower type is complete in the three species. There is presence of hairs on the sepals of I. involucrata but absent on I. asarifolia and I. aquatic. The floral symmetry is generally actinomorphic in all three species. Result on the quantitative floral characters revealed that diameter of flower is higher in I. aquatic (4.04-4.72 cm) and lower in I. involucrata (3.08-3.38 cm). There was a significant difference in the diameter of flower and pedicle length between the three species of Ipomoea.

Conclusion: Generally, the members of this genus Ipomoea have morphological differences or species uniqueness for easy identification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Male Infertility (Case of Varicocele): Ethnobotanical Survey of Traditional Healers in the Cities of Dakar and Mbour, Senegal

Kady Diatta, William Diatta, Alioune Dior Fall, Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng, Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye, Abdou Sarr, Fatoumata Ndiaye

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 8-17

Background: In recent decades, fertility appears to be increasing, which is a public health problem and involving all health actors. Thus, the varicocele is one of the causes affects about 12% of the male population.

Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to inventory the plants used against the treatment of varicocele because the populations often resort to phytotherapy.

Methods: It is in this sense that a survey of twenty two traditional practitioners and six herbalists were conducted to identify the plants used in the management of varicocele in the Dakar and Mbour departments.

Results: Thirty five plants could be identified and divided into thirty three genera and twenty two families. Fabaceae was the most represented family with 5 species followed by Anacardiaceae (4 species), Asclepiadaceae, Combretaceae, Menispermaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae and Zingiberaceae each with 2 species, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Balanitaceae, Cochlospermaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Icacinaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Olacaceae, Oleaceae and Rutaceae each with one species. The most frequent plant species against varicocele were : Khaya senegalensis, Securinega virosa, Guiera senegalensis, Cissampelos mucronata, Tamarindus indica and Zinziber officinale. Some species have been mentioned very frequently to fight the varicocele. These are : Khaya senegalensis (8.57%), Securinega virosa (5.71%), Guiera senegalensis (5.71%) etc. Roots (48%) and Leaves (35%) constituted the greatest use in the form of decocted (44%), infused (27%), powder (25%) macerated (2%), for others uses (3%).

Conclusion: The result of this study was shown that medicinal plants are promising in the management of varicocele. Further investigations are needed to explore the bioactive compounds of these herbal medicines, aimed at exploring the bioactive compounds that can be developed as drugs for varicocele.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effect of Organic Manure and Agricultural Lime on Chlorophyll and Oxidative Stress Enzymes of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia)

E. A. Effa

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 18-26

Background: Chlorophyll content in green plant is an important pigment that supports food manufacturing during the process of photosynthesis and enzymes are antioxidant system in plants that fight against oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of organic manure and agricultural lime on the chlorophyll and oxidative stress enzymes of two bean varieties.

Methodology: The three locations were: Akamkpa with pH 4.0, Calabar Municipality with pH 7.0 and Odukpani with pH of 9.0. The treatments were; control (0 g), OM1 (100 g organic manure), OM2 (200 g organic manure), AL1 (100 g agricultural lime), AL2 (200 g agricultural lime), OM1 + AL1 (50 g organic manure + 50 g agricultural lime) and OM2 +AL2 (100 g organic manure and 100 g agricultural lime.

Results: Chlorophyll a was highest in AL2 (154.21 µg/gFW) of P. vulgaris. Chlorophyll b was highest in OM1 + AL1 (176.00 µg/gFW) grown in Akamkpa soil (P<0.05). In Akamkpa soil, OM1 + AL1 and OM2 of V. aconitifolia had higher chl. b and total chl. (a + b) content than the control with mean values of 152.33 µg/gFW for OM1 + AL1 and 298.67 µg/gFW for OM2. In Akamkpa soil, peroxidase activity was high in OM1 (888.62 µmol/product/L/min) of P. vulgaris which was statistically higher than the control with mean value of (535.36 µmol/product/L/min). POD activity in V. aconitifolia, grown on Akamkpa soil treated with OM1, OM1 + AL1 and OM2 had significantly (P<0.05) higher mean values of (717.64, 708.39 and 694.27 when compared with the untreated soil (566.14d±17.53 µmol/product/L/min). P. vulgaris grown on Odukpani treated with OM1 + AL1 and OM2 + AL2 had the highest PPO activity of 0.77 µmol/product/L/min. PPO activity of V. aconitifolia grown on Odukpani treated with of OM1 + AL1 revealed highest activity (0.78 µmol/product/L/min) compared to control (0.39 µmol/product/L/min).

Conclusion: From the findings of this study, organic manure and agricultural lime are two fertilizer sources recommended for incorporation into agronomic practices for enhanced plant performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Valencia cvs. Performance under New Reclaimed Soil Conditions

Nadia A. Hamed, Azza M. Salama

Asian Journal of Research in Botany, Page 27-40

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three imported Valencia cultivars (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) namely ‘Campbell’, ‘Olinda’ and ‘Delta’ all were budded on Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana) and grown in sandy soil under drip irrigation system.

Study Design: One way completely randomized design was used for the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental was carried out during two successive seasons 2014- 2015 and 2015- 2016 at a private citrus orchard in South El Tahrir, El Beheira governorate, Egypt.

Methodology: The study covers some morphological, anatomical and physiological characteristics for the three investigated cultivars. Yield, fruit quality, total indoles, total phenols, total carbohydrates and minerals concentrations were determined.

Results: Anatomical study showed that the ‘Campbell’ leaves gave the higher values of most tissues measurements under study i.e., palisade thickness, mid vein thickness and main vascular bundle length and width comparing to ‘Olinda’ and ‘Delta’ cvs. Moreover, fruitlets structure demonstrated that, the highest values of flavedo thickness were observed in ‘Delta’ and the highest value of segments width was obtained by ‘Olinda’. Likewise, histological characters of the leaf of three cultivars and their fruitlets structure seemed to be reflected on their growth, yielding and fruit quality. Generally, the results revealed that, ‘Campbell’ produces the highest yield and best fruit quality parameters, whereas ‘Olinda’ fruits gave the highest fruit juice percentage which is an extremely important parameter for its industrial processing.

Conclusion: Thus, it could be concluded that ‘Campbell’ proved as reliable high yielding cultivar with good fruit characteristics followed by ‘Olinda’ with advantage for juice processing under the prevailing agro-climatic conditions of South El Tahrir district, Egypt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Phytochemical Contents of Dry and Fresh Leaves of Sansevieria trifasciata Prain

O. T. Umoh, V. N. Edet, V. E. Uyoh

Asian Journal of Research in Botany,

In the Comparative analysis of the phytochemical contents of dry and fresh leaves of Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, the methanol extract from the plant materials revealed the presence of the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in all the samples. However, In the fresh leaves, alkaloids and saponin were found to be abundant, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides were moderate. In the oven dry leaves, Alkaloids, tannins and cardiac glycosides were moderate, flavonoids and saponin were trace. In the room temperature dry leaves, flavonoids were in trace amount, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides were moderate. The usefulness of S. trifasciata in traditional medicine could be traced to its rich phytochemical constituents especially of alkaloid, tannin and flavonoid. S. trifasciata which is a known ornamental plant in the Akwa Ibom State have certain medicinal constituents which would make it better pharmaceutical raw material and it is hereby recommended that more research should be carried out on this plant to find out it medicinal potency by treating more specimen organisms with their extracts and then placing them in the list of effective and high level pharmaceuticals.