We reported the morpho-anatomy of Ipomoea coccinea L. a new record from Nigeria for the first time. Fresh plant materials (stem, petiole, and leaf) were fixed immediately in Formalin-Acetic-Alcohol for 24h, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax sectioned using rotary microtome, Sections were stained with Safranin and counterstained with Alcian blue and micro-photographed with trinocular research microscope fitted with Amscope digital camera. Ipomoea coccinea is twisting climber with reddish flowers; vine is up to 10 m long with alternate leaf arrangement. The leaf is amphistomatic and dorsiventral. The epidermal cells are irregular in shape with wavy anticlinal walls. The upper epidermis has only paracytic stomata while the lower epidermal surface has mainly paracytic stomata but rarely anisocytic measuring 4.36–8.7×3.9–6.24 µm. The stomata on the upper epidermis are few and mainly located close to the leaf veins. The vascular bundle in the petiole formed a semi-circle with one rib trace. The abaxial and adaxial parenchymatous cortex comprised 7–11 layer of cells with crushed parenchymatous cells below the epidermal cells. The midrib outline is circular to U-shaped with long median projection measuring about 80–90 µm. The stem has protuberances, short glandular trichome, cortex 6–8 layers, and rays in radial multiples of 3 – 6, a continuous thick layer of xylem, and a discontinuous ring of sclerenchymatous fibre. It has glandular peltate trichome with 5 – 6 basal cells which occurred mainly on the lower surface of the leaves but partly on the stem and upper leaf surfaces. The laticifer is found in the cortical parenchyma of the petiole, midrib, and stem while the papillose is found on the stem and the midrib. The calcium oxalate (druses) sparsely occurred in the phloem tissues in the stem. These features of the species confirm that it is member of the Convolvulaceae family.
The management of Musicilliumtheobromae causal organism of Musa Cigar End rot, Peduncle rot and Crown rot diseases in plantain (Musaspp.) was investigated in vitro. Trichodermaharzianum, T. viride and a systemic fungicide Mancozeb (positive control) were tested for their inhibitory activities on the mycelial growth of M.theobromae using dual culture method and poisoned food technique, respectively. The bio-agents were applied using four inoculation techniques: simultaneous (SIM), preventive (PRV), curative (CUR) and control (CTR). The result showed that irrespective of the inoculation method, the bio-agents performed better and were significantly different (P≤0.05) from mancozeb after 8 and 12 days. The percentage inhibition ranged from 89.56 to 100 percent in T. harzianum and 87.74 to 100 percent in T. viride. Specifically, preventive application in both bio-agents completely inhibited the mycelia growth of M. theobromae after 12 days of inoculation. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride and T. harzianum showed potential inhibitory effect on the mycelia growth of Musicillium theobromae. Hence, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potentials of these endophytes against M. theobromae under screen-house and field conditions
Aim and objectives: Citral is the first ingredient to synthesize many other substances of higher value for the pharmaceutical and fragrance industry so finding sources of essential oils containing citral is an important and necessary task. The objective of this study is to survey the citral-bearing plants from Vietnam, search for essential oil plants with high yield and citral content, which can be exploited in large quantities to extract citral sources for fragrance and pharmaceutical industry. Materials and methods: By the method of fresh sampling of essential oil plants in Vietnam, extract essential oils by distillation with steam and then analyze on high-resolution chromatography (HRGC) to search for citral sources.
Results: We have found that some areas with a lot of plants containing high citral content which grow concentrated wild in forests as Litsea cubeba (Litsea cubeba Pers) containing 60-70% citral, Wild marjoram (Elsholtzia winitiana Craib): 55-75%, White basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn): 60-75% can be exploited to source essential oils to extract citral. We also pointed out that essential oils containing high citral content as Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf): 60-75%, Citronella (Cymbopogon tortilis (Presl) A. Camus): 40-55%, Marjoram (Elsholtzia cristata Hyland}: 30-50%, can be planned to cultivate the essential oil source to obtain citral for the pharmaceutical and aromatic industry.
Conclusion: During the survey, we discovered and listed a list of 22 plants with essential oil containing citral in Vietnam.
Moringa oleifera Lam has been used in traditional medicines since long time worldwide. Sugars; proteins and amino acid assumed to be responsible for many of the biological activities in plant cell. The effects of different extraction solvents, on biochemical content of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf powder have been investigated. The highest sugar content was by extracting it with an Methyl alcohol, where it reached 1.89 (mg g-1 DW) followed by Ethanol extract (1.66 mg g-1 DW) However, distilled water extract recorded the lowest content of soluble sugars compared to Methyl and Ethanol alcohol extraction, where it reached (1.30 mg g-1 DW). The results indicated that the high soluble proteins content recorded with Methyl alcohol and distilled water (0.255 and 0.168 mg g-1 DW). On the other hand, the low soluble proteins content with Ethanol alcohol compared to other extracts. high amino acids content with Methyl alcohol (0.55 mg g-1 DW) and distilled water record 0.47 mg g-1 DW, while the low of amino acids content (0.27 mg g-1 DW) it was with the Ethanol alcohol extract.
Studies were carried out to investigate the fungi associated with cucumber, pineapple and watermelon as well as their aflatoxin concentrations prevalent in fruits from some markets in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The fruit samples were collected from Eke Awka, Nnamdi Azikiwe University temporary site and Ifite market for the study. The media used for fungal isolation is Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Fungal isolation from samples, fungal identification and Aflatoxin detection were carried out. The isolated fungi detected from the fruits included Aspergillus niger. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulians, Rhizopus spp, Candida spp. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were found in the fruit products investigated. Aflatoxin was more prevalent in cucumber especially the ones bought from the Eke Awka market. Considerable amount of Aflatoxin were detected from pineapple, cucumber and watermelon in these markets. From the result of the study, in Eke Awka the Aflatoxin B1 was highest in cucumber. In Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Temporary site, the Aflatoxin B1 was highest in cucumber while it was highest in watermelon in Ifite market. In Eke Awka, the Aflatoxin B2 was highest in pineapple and watermelon, in Temp site it was highest in cucumber and in Ifite it was highest in pineapple and watermelon. This shows the poor handling, processing and storage methods by farmers and fruit vendors in these study locations. Crop rotation and management of crop residues should be adopted by farmers in the control of Aflatoxin infection in the field.